Mary Hargrove Haller founded the town of Chappell Hill in 1847, naming the town for her grandfather Robert Wooding Chappell, and the sale of lots began two years later. The community is near the center of Stephen F. Austin's original colony and attracted colonists to the rich agricultural land of the Brazos River valley. Cotton was the principal crop into the early twentieth century. At its height in the late nineteenth century, Chappell Hill was a major trading center with sawmills and two institutes of higher education. The three-block Main Street commercial district and adjoining residential neighborhoods constitute a small and largely intact historic area.
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