SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here.

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courtrooms
Refers to rooms, usually in courthouses, where sessions of a court of law are held.

courts (built works)
Quadrangular spaces either walled or otherwise marked off for playing one of various games usually with a ball.

courtyard houses
Houses with internal courtyards of any configuration or design. For houses with internal courtyards having impluvia but no colonnades, use "atrium houses"; for houses with internal courtyards with colonnades, use "peristyle houses."

courtyards
Uncovered areas, surrounded or partially surrounded by the walls of a building.

covered bridges
Timber-truss structures carrying a roadway or railroad track over a river or other obstacle, characterized by the roof and siding forming an almost complete enclosure to protect the wooden structural members from the weather. There is no evidence of timber-truss bridges, with or without covering, in the ancient world; however, drawings survive of covered bridges dating from the 14th century and later in Europe. In North America covered timber bridges were common in the 18th through early 20th centuries, although they were gradually being replaced by metal truss bridges, which required no covering.

covered walkways
Covered outdoor walkways.

coves (bodies of water)
Denotes small rounded indentations in a coastline, smaller than bays and generally characterized by a narrow entrance.

cow houses
An enclosed building of relatively modest size used for sheltering or stabling cows or bulls. For a large structure used to shelter dozens or more animals, use "dairy barns" or "cattle barns." For a structure with at least one open side, use "cowsheds."

cow towns
Towns that are market centers for cattle; also used to refer to isolated, provincial small towns.

crawl spaces
Small spaces provided in a building in order to be able to gain access to plumbing, wiring, and other equipment.

creeks (bodies of water)
Bodies of water, smaller than a stream.

crescents (row houses)
Multiple dwellings composed of row houses whose facades in plan follow the concave arc of a circle or ellipse.

crib barns
Generally very small barns comprised of one or more cribs or pens, constructed of small-diameter, rough-hewn logs serving various functions, such as food or equipment storage or animal shelter. For similar small wooden structures exclusively for storing corn, use "corncribs."

crisis shelters
Facilities that provide emergency social services and temporary housing in times of personal or family crisis.

cross gables
Gables set parallel to the roof ridge.

crossing towers
Towers over the crossings of churches.

crucks
Pairs of naturally curved timbers that rise from the ground or outer walls of buildings to support a ridge beam; joined at the top and connected by tie beams.

crypts
Subterranean rooms or entire stories in churches, often serving as places of burial.

culs-de-sac
Dead-end streets that have circular turn-around areas at their ends.

cultural centers (buildings)
Public buildings, sites, or complexes set aside for activities related to the culture of an area, such as music, dance, drama, or fine arts.

cultural centers (institutions)
Administrative bodies overseeing or promoting activities related to the culture of an area, such as music, dance, drama, or fine arts.

cultural landscapes
Designates land and water areas significantly altered or modified by human actions; used in contrast to "natural landscapes," that designate areas where human effects, if present, are not ecologically significant to the regions as a whole.

cultural parks
Heritage sites and the lands related to them committed to providing a cultural, recreational, and cultural resource for the public at large.

cultural routes
Historical itineraries such as the Silk Road across Asia or the St. James pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela recognized as heritage sites by administrative bodies such as the Council of Europe and UNESCO. Some are developed as scenic routes for cultural tourism.

culverts
Drainage structures that extend across and beneath roadways, canals, embankments, or traveled ways other than bridges.

cupolas
Generally refers to small domes, often resembling overturned cups or bulbs, placed on a circular, polygonal, or square base or on small pillars or a glassed-in lantern or skylight. A cupola is typically used to crown a turret, roof, or larger dome. The term may also refer specifically to the inner vault of a dome. When these structures are intended to be used as lookouts, prefer "belvederes"; for windowed superstructures on roofs or domes used to admit light or air to the space below, use "lanterns (roof appendages)." To refer specifically to onion-shaped domes of any size, use "onion domes."

curio shops
Shops that specialize in objects of art or bric-à-brac, valued as curiosities or for their rarity.

curtain walls (nonbearing walls)
Nonbearing walls supported by the members of a rigid frame structure, such as a reinforced concrete or steel frame, and therefore serving to enclose but not to support. Nonbearing walls supported by the members of a rigid frame structure, such as a reinforced concrete or steel frame, and therefore serving to enclose but not to support.

customhouses
Government office buildings where customs and duties are paid or collected and where vessels are recorded and cleared.

dachas
Country houses, summer houses, or villas in Russia.

dairies (non-mechanized)
Farm buildings, generally of the 17th to early 19th century, where dairy products are made and stored, usually supervised by country ladies. Distinguished from "dairy plants" by their lack of mechanization. For subsidiary agricultural buildings devoted primarily to the care of milk, whether mechanized or not, prefer "milk houses."

dairy barns
Relatively large structures for sheltering and milking dairy cows, typically with at least a few dozen stalls and milking equipment; for smaller structures to house only a few cows, use "cow house"; for large structures used to provide beef cattle housing, use "cattle barns"; for shelters with one or more open sides, use "cowsheds."

dairy farms
Farms chiefly devoted to the raising of dairy cattle and the production of milk, butter, and cheese.

dairy plants
Buildings built after the early 19th century, not found only on farms, for the mechanized processing, storing, or selling of milk and milk products. Distinguished from "dairies (non-mechanized)" by the use of mechanization. For subsidiary agricultural buildings devoted primarily to the care of milk, often with little or no mechanization, prefer "milk houses."

daises
Raised indoor platforms at or along one end of halls or similar large rooms as places of honor or prominence, as would be reserved for dignitaries, officers, or speakers. For, usually smaller, indoor or outdoor raised platforms used by speakers or conductors, prefer "podiums (platforms)."

dams (hydraulic structures)
Barriers to confine, control, or obstruct the flow of water.

dance halls
Large rooms or buildings set aside for dancing, but which may be used for other social functions. Distinguished from "ballrooms" by their less formal nature.

darkrooms
Rooms freed from light or lighted by a safelight for handling and processing light-sensitive materials.

date stones
Stones on which the date of the construction of a building is inscribed, located on the exterior of the building. Date stones may appear over the main entrance, on a cornerstone, or in other locations on the building.

day camps
Camps providing care and activities for children during daylight hours, usually including outdoor activities during warm seasons, but not including overnight housing.

day care centers (buildings)
Buildings housing professionally-run facilities that care for groups of preschool children on a partial or full-day basis, usually while their parents are at work, but differing from nursery schools in typically offering no formal education to the children.

day schools (buildings)
Buildings housing educational institutions, usually elementary or secondary schools, where classes are held only on weekdays and that do not provide any boarding facilities.

debtors' prisons
Buildings that house places of detention primarily for debtors.

deck truss bridges
Truss bridges having the roadway or track on top of the trusses.

decks (uncovered spaces)
Uncovered wood or metal platforms, usually attached to structures and often raised off the ground or on rooftops.

delicatessens
Stores selling foods already prepared or requiring little preparation for serving, such as cooked meats, cheeses, and salads, to be taken out or to be eaten on the premises.

deltas
Alluvial deposits at the mouths of rivers commonly forming nearly flat, fan-shaped plains of considerable area traversed by many separate branches of water.

dens (rooms)
Small, private, informal rooms in houses or apartments used for work, reading, or relaxation.

dental clinics
Buildings that house clinics specializing in the examination and treatment of issues having to do with teeth and gums.

dental offices
Spaces where teeth are examined, X-rayed, cleaned, extracted, cavities filled, and other minor surgeries are performed on teeth by or under the supervision of a dentist; they typically include a waiting room and a room or rooms with a chair and other equipment for the examination of patients.

dental schools (buildings)
Buildings that house schools devoted to training dentists.

dentils
Bands of small, rectangular, toothlike blocks, usually along the underside of a cornice; a characteristic ornament of classical and classicizing styles.

department stores
Large stores selling many different kinds of articles arranged in different departments or areas of the store.

dependencies
Territories or other administrative bodies that are subject to the control of another nation, while yet remaining outside the official boundaries of that nation.

depots (storage)
Buildings, lots, or other facilities where goods, materials, or vehicles are deposited or stored. For facilities where transportation vehicles stop along a route for the purpose of loading and unloading passengers or goods rather than primarily for the storage of vehicles or goods, use "stations."

deserts
Broad category of dry regions occurring where rainfall is less than 50 cm per year; usually barren and treeless.

design centers
Buildings providing permanent showrooms, galleries, or other display spaces for designers' work or for vendors of products for the design professions.

design studios (organizations)
Studios in which one or more master designers create designs, supervise assistants, and instruct pupils.

detention centers
Places of relatively short confinement for youthful offenders pending transfer or trial.

development areas
Areas designated, usually by a governmental agency, as appropriate for industrial and economic development, often to improve stagnant economies and bring employment opportunities into the region.

dikes
Embankments built along a river or sea and set at some distance from it to control or retain flood waters. For embankments built only to prevent flooding of low-lying land use "levees."

diners (restaurants)
Restaurants originally built to resemble a railway dining car. They are sometimes prefabricated and often have a long, narrow floor plan; they are further distinguished by serving short-order menu items, and usually having a counter and booths at which customers may eat. They were originally often located along roadways, although today they may also be found in urban environments.

dinettes
Small dining areas, usually extensions of kitchens or pantries; for such areas when they are extensions of living rooms, use "dining alcoves."

dining halls
Use both for large dining rooms, as in a college, and for buildings containing a dining hall.

dining rooms
Rooms in private houses or public establishments in which dinner and other principal meals are taken and which are furnished for this purpose.

diocesan schools
Schools serving or supported by an ecclesiastical diocese, often including training in theology.

distilleries
Facilities where the distilling and blending of spirits is carried on, including processes by which evaporation of water and subsequent condensation of the alcoholic beverage is achieved.

distribution centers
Commercial buildings located regionally that combine large warehouse facilities with sales and office spaces.

districts
Territorial divisions as for administrative or electoral purposes, or settlement areas with distinguishing characteristics.

ditches
Long narrow excavations, usually with sloping sides, dug in the earth for defense, drainage, or irrigation.

diversion dams
Barriers built across waterways to turn aside all or some of the flow from its usual course into a pipe, trench, or channel, as to bypass construction work.

divided highways
Highways with a broad median strip extending down the center, designed to prevent collisions and headlight glare from oncoming traffic. Highways with a broad median strip extending down the center, designed to prevent collisions and headlight glare from oncoming traffic.

docks (waterfront spaces)
Artificial basins excavated and often built up with masonry or another material, and often fitted with flood-gates, into which boats or ships are received for purposes of landing, loading and unloading, or for repair. The earliest known docks date to ca. 2500 BCE in Egypt. The plural term is often used to refer to a single such artificial basin. When such spaces are unoccupied and are alongside a landing place, use "berths (waterfront spaces)"; use "slips (waterfront spaces)" when such water spaces are unoccupied and set between adjacent piers or perpendicular to landing places. Use "dockyards" for the group of landing places in ports or for port facilities as a whole. For the structures that surround a dock, excluding the space occupied by water, prefer "piers (marine landings)" or "wharves." For structures used for docking for various purposes, use "dry docks," "wet docks," or "floating docks." Distinguished from the structures, "docks (general waterside structures)," which in casual, modern usage may refer to any waterside structure supporting people or their activities.

doghouses
Small houses or dwellings for a dog or a small number of dogs. For larger structures intended to house many dogs, use "kennels (animal housing)."

dogtrot houses
Houses in which two pens are separated by a passageway, and the whole is covered by a single roof. Originally constructed of logs, they may now be built from any material, the passageway being the prime characteristic of these houses.

dogtrots
Refers to passages, sharing a roof common with the rest of the building, connecting two parts of a log house of the American folk architecture tradition. Distinguished from "breezeways" by its folk architecture and log house context and its common roof.

dolphins (structures)
Multipurpose boating structures consisting of a group of piles driven close together and bound firmly into a single cluster, placed at the entrance of a dock or along a quay, wharf, or beach.

domes (architectural elements)
Rounded vaults comprising spheres or portions of spheres sitting on circular, elliptical, or polygonal bases, forming the roof of any building or part of a building. They are constructed so that they exert equal thrust in all directions.

Doric order
Refers to the architectural order characterized by columns generally without bases, relatively simple capitals, and a frieze composed of alternating triglyphs and metopes.

dormers
Structures projecting from a sloping roof usually housing a window or ventilating louver.

dormitories (buildings)
Buildings containing a number of rooms or suites that provide shelter in a communal environment, particularly those at a school, monastery, orphanage, or other such facility.

dormitories (buildings)
Buildings containing a number of rooms or suites that provide shelter in a communal environment, particularly those at a school, monastery, orphanage, or other such facility.

dormitories (rooms)
Rooms containing a number of beds and serving as communal sleeping quarters, as in an institution, fraternity house, or passenger ship.

double houses
Houses with separate dwelling units for two individual families placed side by side and separated horizontally by party walls. When the units are set one above the other use "duplex houses."

double monasteries
Religious houses for communities of both men and women, dwelling in contiguous establishments, united under the rule of one superior.

double-framed roofs
Roofs in which the common rafters rest on purlins which transfer the loads to principal rafters or trusses.

double-gable roofs
Roofs formed by the junction of two gable roofs with a valley between them, resembling the letter M in section.

double-hung windows
Windows having two vertically sliding sashes, each closing a different part of the window; the weight of each sash is counter-balanced for ease of opening and closing.

double-pile houses
Houses having two rows of rooms in each story of the floor plan, often with a corridor between the two rows.

dovecotes
Birdhouses, often quite large, for doves or pigeons, usually having small interior niches to facilitate nesting and breeding.

downtowns
Core or central areas of cities or towns that are either the oldest areas of the city or the core business areas. The term is thought to derive from these areas, as the oldest areas, having the lowest street numbers; alternatively, term may derive from the development of New York City, where the oldest section is in the south, at the bottom of a map.

drawbridges
Movable bridges in which one or more span sections can be pivoted upward by means of chains, cables, or other ropelike devices; if the sections are pivoted by counterweights, use "bascule bridges."

drawing rooms
Formal reception rooms, as in a home or hotel, or rooms to which one may retire for privacy or rest.

dressing rooms
Rooms for dressing and the toilet, usually opening from a bedroom.

drill halls
Spaces set aside for the planning and practice of military drills.

drive-in banks
Buildings that house banks designed to allow customers to transact business, primarily to make withdrawals and deposits, from their automobiles. Customers typically pull up to a window on the bank building to access automated or human tellers without leaving their cars. Such banks typically also have interior spaces where customers may transact business during designated hours.

drive-in restaurants
Restaurants optimized for customers to park and remain in their automobile for service rather than entering the building. They are usually characterized by having rows of sheltered parking areas to which restaurant staff bring food to customers seated in their cars. They usually have a limited menu of fast food, such as burgers and fries. There may be a microphone at each parking slot to allow the placing of orders.

drive-in theaters
Designates outdoor movie theaters designed to accommodate patrons viewing from their automobiles.

drive-through restaurants
Restaurants designed and optimized to allow customers to drive automobiles alongside the building to take away fast food without exiting the cars. The design usually incorporates a window or microphone station where orders are placed from the cars, and a window where the food is delivered and paid for.

driveways
Refers to approach roads, usually private, for vehicles providing access to dwellings or other buildings.

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