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Pure metallic element having symbol Au and atomic number 79; a soft, inert, shiny reddish yellow metal that is very malleable and ductile. Gold has been highly valued and found in artifacts dating to before 5000 BCE. Native gold, found in quartz veins (vein gold) and alluvial deposits (placer gold), generally contains some silver and copper. Gold is purified by dissolution in mercury or cyanide solutions, by melting, or by electrodeposition. The purity of commercial gold is expressed in karats which is the number of parts of gold in 24 parts of the alloy. Today gold is primarily used for monetary systems and for jewelry.
Refers to sheets of gold that have been hammered or rolled very thin (typically around 0.1 micrometer, or 4 millionths of an inch, thick). In art, gold leaf has been applied to paintings, sculptures, manuscripts, and decorative arts since around 1500 BCE. In the 1920s, the process of creating gold leaf was successfully automated.
gold plating (process)
The process of coating an object with a thin adherent layer of gold.
Refers mainly to the style in English and American architecture and decorative arts from the mid-18th century to the mid-19th century. The style is characterized by the use of rosettes, pinnacles, tracery, foils, and polychrome effects inspired by Gothic architecture and reproduced with the aim of historical accuracy.
Casual scribbles or informal drawings on walls or other surfaces. Examples include the following: The casual scribbles or pictographs on walls, stones, or other surfaces in ancient and medieval times, the marks incised or cut into the underside of ancient Greek vases and other ceramics, and modern humorous, satiric, obscene, or gang-related writings or drawings executed anonymously in public places. Graffiti is distinct from "sgraffito," in that sgraffito is not casual, but is instead a formal decorative mark-making technique used on pottery, glass, or other surfaces. For more finished, elaborate works on modern walls and other surfaces, prefer "graffiti art."
A coarse-grained igneous rock that has been subjected to metamorphic processes, formed by cooling of silica-rich magma below the surface of the earth at great depths and pressures. It is the most common intrusive acid igneous rock of the Earth's crust. Granite is commonly found on continents, but is virtually absent from the ocean basins. The term "granite" refers to its visible granular composition. It has a visibly crystalline texture, is usually red, whitish, or gray in color depending upon its composition, is very hard and durable, and takes a fine polish. Granite is primarily composed of feldspar, quartz, and mica along with various other minerals in varying percentages. Granite is frequently used for buildings and monuments.
Naturally occurring crystalline form of carbon dimorphous with diamond. Graphite has a layered structure that consists of rings of six carbon atoms arranged in widely spaced horizontal sheets, and thus crystallizes in the hexagonal system, in contrast to the same element crystallizing in the octahedral or tetrahedral system as diamond, resulting in very different characteristics in each. Graphite is opaque, soft, greasy to the touch, and iron black to steel gray in color; it occurs as crystals, flakes, scales, veins, bedded masses, or disseminations in metamorphic rocks.
grass (plant material)
Material comprising the stalks or leaves of plants of the family Poaceae, and plants resembling these in general appearance.
Plants in the graminae family, and plants resembling those in appearance. Also, used generally to refer to herbage, especially herbage eaten by grazing animals.
Areas dominated by grasses rather than large shrubs or trees. One of the earth's six major biomes.
A coarse granular aggregate, larger than sand, formed either naturally or by crushing rock.
Granite with a mineral composition that results in a gray color and typically fine texture.
gray iron (cast iron)
Pig or cast iron containing much graphite.
Marble with a mineral composition that results in a predominantly gray color.
Slate that is predominantly gray in color.
green glass (bottle glass)
Inexpensive glass, commonly of greenish or brownish color, which is caused by the presence of impurities, notably iron. It is often used to make bottles or windows. The term is derived from its resemblance to forest glass, which is also called "green glass."
Marble with a mineral composition resulting in a predominantly green color.
Slate that has a component of chlorite, causing a greenish color.
Low-grade double-strength drawn glass used in the construction of greenhouses; it is slightly wavy so it may cause slight distortion of images viewed through it.
Any of various rocks that are green in color, including altered igneous rocks colored green by feldspar, hornblende, augite, nephrite, or other minerals, or low-grade metamorphic rock containing actinolite, epidote, or albite. Greenstone has been used for carving and construction.
Compound vaults in which barrel vaults intersect forming ridges called groins.
Mortar whose watery consistency allows it to be placed or pumped into small joints or cavities, as between pieces of ceramic clay, slate, or floor tile.
Carbohydrate containing exudates obtained from some trees or shrubs belonging to the family Fabaceae of the pea order Fabales. Gum is insoluble in alcohol and either soluble or swellable in water. Some plant gums are used in the form of water solutions in the manufacture of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods; when the water evaporates, a film having a considerable adhesive character is formed. Some gums, such as gum arabic, dissolve in water to give clear solutions. Other gums, such as gum tragacanth, form mucilages by the absorption of large amounts of water. May be distinguished from "resin" in that gum hardens in drying, but is usually soluble in water.
General term for wood of any of several species of trees of the genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia, and Angophora that exude copious sap or gum from any break in the bark. It is tough, has an interlocking grain, and is used for mallets, furniture, and bottle cases.
A construction material composed of cement, sand, or crushed slag and water forced through a pneumatic gun.
Naturally occurring soft white mineral that is commonly used as a retarding agent in portland cement, as a core in sheets of wallboard, as a white pigment, in grounds for paintings, and is the main component of alabaster.
Any of the common types of wall plaster in general use, all of which contain various amounts of gypsum.
The vernacular building technique in which the spaces between the heavy supporting timbers are filled with brick, wattle and daub, or other material. The term is also used to describe buildings with a false-timber frame attached to the outside wall to give the appearance of half-timber construction.
Trusses of the type utilized in hammer-beam roofs, with a combination of hammer beams, hammer posts, and braces taking the place of the beam at the base of the roof.
Any brick molded by hand before firing; a brick mold or stock may be used. Due to the fact that it is less uniform than machine-made brick, it is sometimes preferred for facing.
A brick that has been burned at high temperature, yielding high compressive strength and durability and low absorption.
Wood produced from broad-leaved deciduous trees, varying widely in color and grain pattern; usually but not always harder than softwood. Examples of hardwood trees are ash, beech, birch, cherry, mahogany, maple, oak, poplar, and walnut. Hardwood trees are found in temperate and tropical climate zones. Most of the wood used for cabinetry, furniture and flooring is obtained from hardwood trees; only a small amount of hardwood is used for paper pulp. The term hardwood is somewhat confusing since some deciduous trees, such as basswood, have timber that is softer than some coniferous trees, such as yellow pine.
General term for material comprising grass that has been mown, cut, and cured; often used as fodder.
Glass that absorbs heat because it is opaque to infrared radiation; it nevertheless retains a reasonable degree of transparency to most other radiation.
Lines of closely spaced hedges typically interspersed with trees, usually planted on a low earthen wall or base and trained to form a barrier or mark the boundary of an area, particularly in fields or between properties.
A metallic black-gray or dark red mineral primarily composed of iron oxide found throughout the world, although the largest source is a sedimentary deposit in the Lake Superior district in North America. It occurs in many physical forms: specular ore (steel gray color, shiny crystals); micaceous hematite (gray, scaly flakes), red ocher (soft, fine-grain, red powder); kidney ore (massive, gray botryoidal form), and pencil ore (gray, fibrous crystals). Because hematite has a high iron content (70%), it is primarily used for smelting iron. It also has been used since ancient times as a red pigment in paints and glazes, for seals, beads, and small carvings since the early 3rd millineum. It is also used as jewelers' rouge for polishing glass and to produce the sparkle in aventurine ceramic glazes.
Wood of the tree from the genus Tsuga. The bark contains tannin, used in the tanning industry, and the timber is mostly light in color with a pinkish tinge, and the soft, and coarse-grained, used in construction of boxes.
Perennial plants which have no woody stem, and which can be divided into three types: annuals, biennials, and herbaceous perennials.
Any chemical agent that is toxic to some or all plants, particularly those categorized as weeds. Historically a variety of substances have been used including salts, carbon disulfide, borax, pyridine, mercurials, and arsenic trioxide. After 1945 synthetic varieties emerged including: amitrole, picloram, 2,4-D, DDT, atrazine, glyphosate, diquat, and paraquat. Herbicides do not always decompose and have created environmental hazards.
Wood of the tree belonging to the genus Carya, valued because it is strong, elastic, and shock resistant. The reddish brown wood has a straight grain and a fine texture that polishes well; used for flooring, tool handles, farm implements, chairs, wheel spokes, golf clubs, baseball bats, and for flavoring smoked food. It is also split into thin canes for weaving. The heartwood is white.
Small hills, small elevations in the earth's surface, or small mounds or heaps of earth or stones.
Roofs which rise to a peak or ridge by inclined planes on all, usually four, sides, therefore requiring hip rafters.
A hollow clay masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the bearing surface is not less than 60% of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane. In British usage it refers to a brick with holes in it that total at least 25% of its volume, the holes being not less than 3/4 in. (1.91 cm) wide or 3/4 sq. in. (4.84 sq. cm) in area.
hollow masonry units
Masonry units whose net corss-sectioned area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than 75% of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
honey locust (wood)
Wood of the species Gleditsia triacanthos, native to regions in North and South America, Africa, and Asia. It produces a high quality wood that polishes well, but is lighter and weaker than most locust wood. It is used for specialty furniture, wheel spokes, and posts.
A transparent red or brown variety of zircon, sometimes used as a gem.
Any of various crystalline or glassy rocks formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or other molten earth material. Igneous rocks comprise one of the three principal classes of rocks, the others being metamorphic and sedimentary.
Genus containing around 400 species of red- or black-berried plants, including the popular Christmas hollies grown for ornamentation. Timber from the holly has a fine uniform texture. The trees provide shelter, protection from predators, and food for birds, other animals, and insects; the berries are mildly poisonous to humans. Ilex is the only living genus in the family Aquifoliaceae.
Wood impregnated with thermosetting resin then subjected to heat and pressure to provide both resin curing and compression.
Synthetically produced brick red color iron oxide artists' pigment. Originally, the name "Indian red" was used for red earth pigments imported from the Persian Gulf and India; in the early 18th century, a synthetic Indian red composed of pure ferric oxide was made from steel mill wastes. It is a dense, opaque, permanent pigment.
A noncrystalline massive rock with aggregate filler and a matrix of 98% calcium carbonate in gray and buff colors; it is an oolitic limestone with small round grains resembling fish roe. Almost half of all the limestone used in the United States in block form is Indiana limestone.
Mass of any type of metal, cast into convenient shape for storage and transportation, to be rolled, forged, melted, or otherwise processed later. In some periods and cultures, such as in China, ancient Italy, and parts of Africa, they have been used as currency and as ceremonial objects.
Words, texts, lettering, or symbols marked on a work, including texts, legends, documentation notes, or commemoration. For standardized symbols or notations on objects that convey official information, use "marks (symbols)."
Window glass made of two sheets of glass separated by metal bonded to the edges of the glass, leaving an insulating layer of dehydrated air between the two panes.
A substance that is a nonconductor, so as to prevent the passage of heat, electricity, or sound.
Shutters, typically made of wood, mounted on the inside wall of a house, covering a window.
Pure metallic element having symbol Fe and atomic number 26; metallic iron is silvery in color, lustrous, soft, ductile, malleable, and slightly magnetic; it rusts when exposed to moist air. It is rarely found as a native metal (telluric iron) except in meteorites (meteoric iron). Iron is most often found throughout the world as iron oxides (hematite, magnetite, limonite, and siderite) mixed with other ores.
Alloy in which iron is the principle element.
General term for exceptionally tough or hard wood from any of numerous species of trees and shrubs, such as ebony, hornbeam, or acacia.
ironwork (visual works)
Visual works or parts of works made of iron, generally reserved for decorative forms fashioned in wrought or cast iron.
Any red chert or chalcedony.
Wood of the genus Juniperus, evergreen shrubs or trees, of which numerous species are found variously in the northern hemisphere; used in joinery.
Genus containing 60 to 70 species of aromatic evergreen trees or shrubs.
Juniperus virginiana (species)
Species of juniper native to eastern North America, from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.
Black- or green-glass bottles of quart and pint sizes, used primarily for beers, porter, cider, spring water, and other popular potables.
Works composed primarily of industrial and modern consumer-culture waste, usually presented as assemblages of found objects.
Bast fiber derived from either of two East Indian plants (Corchorus olitorius and C. capsularis). The pale brown fibers are soft, lustrous, and coarse, ranging in length from 4 to 10 feet. The brittle fibers are used to produce a thread called hessian. Jute becomes so weak when wet that a thin twine can be broken by hand. It turns brown and degrades with time, sunlight, water, acids, alkalis, and bleach. Jute has been used since prehistoric times. It is used to make sackcloth, burlap cloth, gunnysacks, twine, paper, and carpet backing. It was also used to make brown paper in Europe in the mid-19th century.
Lumber that has been dried with the use of artificial heat in a kiln (oven).
Triangular frames with a vertical central strut (the king post) extending from apex to tie beam.
Hard, golden-brown wood of the species Acacia koa, native to Hawaii. The color and grain pattern of koa wood changes with growing conditions and tree age. It is a lightweight, but durable wood, that is brittle with variations in density. Koa is difficult to work or plane but carves well and polishes to a high gloss, used for carvings, boats, dugout canoes, early surfboards, veneers, musical instruments, and furniture. It was the royal wood of the native Hawaiians and was used for everything that came in contact with the royal family.
Wood of the trees of the genus Laburnum, having a striking, dark greenish brown or reddish brown color, fine grain, and capable of taking a high polish. It is typically used for cabinetmaking and inlay.
A resinous substance excreted by the lac insect, especially those who live on the twigs and soft new branches of several varieties of soapberry and acacia trees. Lac is used in the manufacture of varnishes (shellac), sealing wax (lac wax), and red colorants (lac dye) as early as ca. 1200 BCE in India. The word "lac" is the English version of Persian and Hindi words meaning "hundred thousand," indicating the large number of the tiny insects required to produce lac.
Paint, varnish, or another material applied by coating, made of the resinous exudation of certain trees or from insects, and that dries with a high gloss or matte finish. In most lacquers resin is dissolved in a volatile solvent or a drying oil and hardens by evaporation. Lacquer may be applied in many layers, so the thick surface may be set with inlays or carved.
lagoons (bodies of water)
Bodies of shallow water separated from the sea by a barrier, such as a sandbar or coral reef.
Flexible material made by bonding together two or more layers of materials with adhesive. For resin-impregnated laminate, such as paper or fabric, use "plastic laminate." For thin sheets of layered plastic, use "laminated plastic."
laminated veneer lumber
Lumber produced by overlaying and adhering multiple layers of thin wood. This composite wood product is stronger and more uniform than conventional milled lumber and less likely to warp or shrink.
Raised skylights or small lanterns with the sides mostly glazed, erected on a roof to admit light to the space below.
lapis lazuli (rock)
A granular crystalline rock composed essentially of lazurite and calcite. This is an old name for gem-variety lazurite.
Wood of the genus Larix, native to cool and sub-Arctic parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Most larch timber is coarse-grained, hard, and heavy, and is used for the construction of telephone poles, mine timbers, and railroad ties.
lath (grounding surface)
The surface, other than masonry, to which plaster is applied; made from various materials, including expanded metal mesh, gypsum board, or other material that will sufficiently bond the plaster.
laths (wood by form)
Thin, narrow, flat pieces of wood used for many purposes, such as in constructing lattices of trellis work, Venetian blinds, or to form a groundwork upon which to fasten the slates or tiles of a roof or the plaster of a wall or ceiling. For groundwork of any material upon which plaster or another such material is applied, use "lath (grounding surface)."
Secondary roof support members, usually light poles or trimmed saplings, placed perpendicularly or in a herringbone pattern over vigas (primary beams) in Native American or Spanish American adobe construction.
Wood obtained from any of several species of the genus Shorea; sold as Philippine mahogany on the American market. It is a reddish- brown wood resembling mahogany in texture, weight, and strength, but it is not dimensionally stable with changes in relative humidity. Lauan wood is used for furniture, cabinetry, veneers, and boat building.
Wood of trees belonging to the genus Laurus, native to India, West Pakistan and Burma. It is used extensively for making furniture, cabinet-making, interior joinery, and staircases.
Laurus nobilis (species)
Species of aromatic evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean region but widely cultivated elsewhere, growing 6-18 meters (20-60 feet) in height and having stiff, alternate, oval leaves that are dull and leathery, around 8 cm (3.5 inches) long; the leaf edges are smooth and often wavy, used as a cooking herb. In ancient Greece the wreath of honor placed upon the heads of heroes and winners of games was made from the leaves and branches of this species. The small and inconspicuous flowers are yellowish or greenish white. The fruit is a green, purple, or blackish berry containing a single seed, and when pressed, producing an aromatic oil. The wood is strong and elastic, used for carving and marquetry.
Molten volcanic rock that issues from a volcano or fissure in the earth's surface; also, the same material after being cooled and solidified.
Sheer, lightweight plain-woven textile, originally of linen now also of fine combed cotton yarn, filled with starch or sizing. often used for handkerchiefs, aprons, and curtains.
lawns (landscaped grass)
Areas of cultivated grass or other ground cover maintained for aesthetic quality or recreation.
Pure metallic element having symbol Pb and atomic number 82; soft, dense ductile metal of a dull gray color, shiny when freshly cut, occuring naturally most often as a sulfide in the mineral galena. Other lead minerals include anglesite (lead sulfate) and cerussite (lead carbonate). Native metallic lead was found and used from about 3600-2600 BCE when the technique for obtaining lead from roasting the sulfide ore (galena) was discovered. Lead was used to make small cast items such as coins and statuettes, plumbing pipes, spires, statues, cisterns, gargoyles, pigments (lead white, litharge, orange mineral, etc.), as a component in pottery glazes, for roofing, flashing, stained glass windows, as a soft solder, and as radiation shielding.
Glass containing a high proportion of lead oxide and having a relatively high refractive index, with poor acid resistance and low rigidity; used in many optical components, neon-sign tubing, and light bulbs.
Visual works or parts of works made from lead, particularly sculptural, ornamental, or architectural objects. Usage may include plumbing or glazier's work.
The skin or hide of an animal that has been tanned to render it resistant to putrefication and relatively soft and flexible when dry. For composite material made from scrap leather pieces, use "maril."
Lighting devices that incorporate an array of LEDs within a bulb-shaped enclosure, usually made of glass. These are used for general lighting applications, in most cases as a replacement for incandescent light sources, as they offer more efficient energy performance.
A soft coal, usually dark brown, often having a distinct woodlike texture, and intermediate in density and carbon content between peat and bituminous coal.
General term for a number of different citrus fruits, both established species and hybrids, that are typically round, green to yellowish green in color, containing acidic pulp that is sweeter than lemons, and of a size usually smaller than lemons.
A concrete made from a mixture of lime, sand, and gravel, widely used before the lime matrix was replaced by portland cement.
A mixture of hydrated lime, sand, and water, which has a compressive strength up to 400 psi.
A type of plaster composed of calcium oxide (lime). Lime plaster has been used since antiquity, prepared by heating limestone to remove carbon dioxide and convert it to anhydrous calcium oxide (quicklime). When quicklime is mixed with water, it converts to calcium hydroxide (slaked lime).
General name for a sedimentary rock existing in many varieties, consisting primarily of calcite or dolomite.