At the close of the Civil War, the Roanoke Land and Colonization Company, along with other organizations in the South, was formed to recruit immigrant workers from the North and from Europe to replace the emigrating former slaves. Mecklenburg County brought in more of these laborers than any other county in Virginia. So many Northerners came to this small town then known as Christiansville that in 1873 it was renamed in honor of Salmon P. Chase, United States chief justice and Abraham Lincoln's secretary of the treasury. Chase City promoted itself as “the largest and wealthiest Northern Colony in the Southern States.”
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