As headquarters for the New River Company, one of the state's largest coal operations, Mount Hope prospered in the early twentieth century. The majority of stone and brick structures were built soon after a disastrous 1910 fire destroyed what had been largely a wooden town. The rapid pace of rebuilding earned Mount Hope the sobriquet “Fayette's Phoenix City.” Throughout most of the twentieth century, Mount Hope's population hovered around 2,000, but the 2000 census counted only 1,487. Most of the significant buildings are on or near Main Street (West Virginia 210), which follows the winding path of the former Giles, Fayette and Kanawha Turnpike.
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