SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here

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Desert Tradition
No description available for this term.

Dutch (culture or style)
Refers to the culture of the modern nation of the Netherlands, or in general to cultures that have occupied the same area in northwestern Europe along the North Sea. It is often used to distinguish the culture of the northern historic Netherlands from "Flemish," which is the culture of the southern Netherlands or Flanders. It may also be used to refer in general to the culture of Germanic or Teutonic peoples; however, this meaning is seldom found in modern texts.

Dutch Colonial
Refers to the style of artistic production in Dutch colonies featuring a combination of Dutch and native characteristics. Applied to architecture, the style refers especially to structures in South Africa and parts of North America featuring gambrel roofs, overhanging eaves, stepped gables, and brickwork. It also describes furniture produced especially in the East Indies between 1602 and 1942 characterized by twisted legs or bed-posts, canework, and the use of native woods such as satinwood, teak, ebony, and calamander.

Early Christian
The culture, styles, and period of the first centuries of Christianity, by some reckonings through the 9th century. In art, it generally refers to art of Italy and the western Mediterranean from the third to the mid-9th century CE. It is characterized by an adaptation of the artistic language and symbolism of classical antiquity, but generally sacrifices classical ideals of physical beauty and technical perfection to emphasize spirituality and the immaterial world. For the culture, style, and period of eastern Mediterranean Christian from the 4th to the mid-15th century CE, use "Byzantine."

Early English
Refers to the beginnings of Gothic architectural style in England, as coined by English architect and antiquarian, Thomas Rickman, in the early 19th century. It originally referred primarily to window tracery, but now is applied more generally to the broader style. The style is evident in the late 12th century, and is characterized by the use of the pointed arch, long narrow windows without mullions, a rectangular plan, and a long, low silhouette broken only by numerous gables.

Early Renaissance
Refers to the early period of the Renaissance, when the style developed in Central Italy in the mid- to late fourteenth century and spread throughout the peninsula and to northern Europe in the early to mid-15th century. The style moved away from the fantastic, decorative styles of the Medieval period to place new emphasis on the idealized naturalistic world portrayed in the art, architecture, and literature of Classical Greece and Rome.

Early Victorian
Refers to the Victorian style between 1837 and about 1850. It is characterized by a progression from earlier Regency forms to revival styles, particularly the Gothic Revival, and a growing interest in ornamentation and heavy forms.

earthworks (sculpture)
Artist works that manipulate natural earth and stone, altering the terrain of the land itself for artistic purposes. For large-scale outdoor works that otherwise exploit or incorporate aspects of their sites, use the more general term "environmental art." For the results of grading, trenching, or embanking earth, for utilitarian purposes, use "earthworks (engineering works)."

Refers to the decorative and architectural style in 19th century America associated with the furniture designs of Charles Locke Eastlake. In architecture, the style derives forms from furniture design featuring columns resembling table legs, curved brackets, spindles, and knobs of various shapes consisting of circular perforations.

Approach or practice of selecting the best elements from different doctrines, methods, or styles to apply them in a new creation. In the specific context of art or architectural criticism, use to mean borrowing from a variety of visual sources in the creation of a work.

Refers mainly to the style of architecture produced during the reign of Edward VII (1901-1910) though some authors date it from 1890, when the Gothic became less predominant and architectural style became more eclectic, to 1914 when building halted because of World War I. Often noted for its ebullience or opulent and monumental qualities, Edwardian architecture actually reflects the development of several architectural movements, namely the Baroque and Neoclassical Revivals, the Beaux-Arts Style, and the Arts and Crafts Movement.

Effigy Mound (regional style)
No description available for this term.

Egyptian Islamic
The Islamic culture and styles that developed in Egypt.

Egyptian Revival
Refers to the style in American and European architecture and decorative arts dating between the late 18th and early 19th centuries and influenced by publications about Egypt and Napoleon's military campaigns. It is characterized by the use of Egyptian forms and motifs including obelisks, pyramids, hieroglyphs, winged solar discs, sphinxes, papyrus, and lotus buds.

Period, culture, and English style of architecture and decorative arts produced during the reign of Elizabeth I between 1551 and 1603. A combination of Gothic, Italian Renaissance, Flemish and French Mannerist, and vernacular styles, it is characterized by elaborate architectural silhouettes, elements suchs as finials, pendants, and strapwork and in decorative arts, rich surface ornamentation.

Elizabethan Revival
Refers to the English style of architecture, interior design, and decorative arts from the 1830s to the 1860s, drawn from the Elizabethan period of the sixteenth century. Architects adopted a range of Elizabethan architectural forms including gables, octogonal turrets and lead-paned windows, while designers applied cinquefoils, strapwork, and coats of arms to furniture, silver, and ceramics.

environmental art
Contemporary works of art, usually outdoors and on a grand scale, that surround or involve the participation of the viewer and that especially exploit or incorporate aspects of their sites. For such works that specifically manipulate the land itself, use "earthworks (sculpture)." For indoor installations that create surroundings that can be entered by the viewer, use "environments (sculpture)." For sculpture that is designed to be placed outdoors but is not especially site-specific, use "outdoor sculpture." For art that utilizes natural physical forces, biological organisms and processes, and performance to illustrate, question, and explain ecological and environmental issues, use "ecological art."

Eskimo (culture or style)
Refers to artwork produced by native Arctic culture, prior to European contact. For names of specific native peoples of the present, use descriptors such as "Chugach," "Inuit," or "Katladlit."

Expressionist (style)
Refers to an international style of art, literature, music, dance, and theater that flourished between 1905 and 1920, especially in Germany. The style is characterized by the abandonment of traditional standards of realism and proportion in favor of expressing the artist's emotions, resulting in distortions of line, color, and form.

Style of timber-framed houses particular to Germany and nearby areas, distinguished by rather small, regular square divisions. Developed from earlier schwellenbau constructions in the mid- to late 14th century; similar in style to the later Tudor Revival style of England.

fantastic architecture
Architectural designs that are eccentric, outrageous, or unconventional, that jolt or excite the viewer, and that are generally characterized by an unusual juxtaposition of shapes or materials; may be spontaneously constructed, incomplete, or unbuilt.

Refers to movement in America that flourished from around 1785 to 1820 based on the revival of Roman architectural styles in the design of government buildings. The movement, endorsed by Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Latrobe, is driven by the metaphorical concept of the United States as analogous to the Roman Republic in its grandeur and political philosophy.

fin de siècle
Refers broadly to the arts of the last two decades of the 19th century. The period is characterized by its artistic and literary spirit of jaded sophistication and self-conscious aestheticism.

Flemish (culture or style)
Refers to the culture of the southern Netherlands, roughly corresponding to modern Belgium, Luxembourg, and part of France, particularly during the historical period when Flanders was an independent principality.

folk art (traditional art)
Art and crafts that are produced in culturally cohesive communities or contexts, and guided by traditional rules or procedures. It includes paintings, ceramics, textiles, sculpture, and other art forms. It is generally distinct from "naive art," which is created by those without formal training, but not necessarily within a cohesive cultural community. It is also distinct from "outsider art," which usually refers specifically to art created or collected according to a philosophy of avoidance of traditional training.

No description available for this term.

Fort Ancient
No description available for this term.

François I
Refers to the French style of architecture and sculpture during the reign of François I from 1515 to 1547. A combination of the Gothic and Renaissance styles and, according to some authors, the Mannerist style, it is associated with the Loire valley chateaux of François I.

Free Style (architecture)
Refers to the style in late-19th-century architecture in which Queen Anne and vernacular styles mixed freely with Classical and Gothic elements often producing less rigid, asymmetrical, and complex plans.

No description available for this term.

French Colonial
Refers to the style of artistic production in French colonies featuring a combination of French and native characteristics.

French Renaissance-Baroque styles
Styles belonging to French Renaissance-Baroque cultures.

The culture of Canadians of French ancestry, or of early French settlers in Canada.

frontier settlements
Inhabited places established as an outpost or for another reason on the frontier of a nation, empire, or other ruling entity.

First used to describe the work of a group of artists working in San Francisco in the late 1950s, and later used as the title of an exhibition held in Callifornia in 1967. The style is characterized by a preoccupation with sick, shocking, and sexually provocative imagery resulting in bizarre combinations of materials such as leather, steel, clay, vinyl, fur, and ceramics.

Refers to the literary and artistic movement centered in Italy that emphasized speed, dynamism, energy and a rejection of the past, which began with the writings of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti in 1909. Futurism also developed in Russia, with more revolutionary and political connotations. In painting, the style is charactersized by a reliance on divisionist techniques until 1912, when it adopted the simultaneous views and distorted planes of Cubism. Futurist ideas in architecture are represented by drawings and city plans of utopian societies.

No description available for this term.

Georgian (British Renaissance-Baroque style)
Refers to the style in architecture, interior design, and decorative arts in Britain and Ireland and spread to the United States during the reigns of George I to George IV, between 1714 and 1830. Some authors omit the reign of George IV and refer to the period ca.1790 to 1830 as Regency. Though Classical forms and motifs dominate, the style encompasses Renaissance and Rococo forms as well as a range of Neoclassical styles such as Pompeiian Revival and Etruscan style.

Georgian Revival
Refers to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century English style of architecture, furniture, and decorative arts that revived the architectural forms and decorative motifs of the Georgian period from 1714 to 1830. Georgian Revival architecture, like its model, features symmetrical brick facades, pitched roofs, sashes, and fanlights, while furniture design draws from the styles of Adam, Hepplewhite, Sheraton, and Chippendale.

German Renaissance-Baroque styles
Styles belonging to German Renaissance-Baroque cultures.

Germanic (Migration Migration culture or period)
Refers to the style and period associated with the Indo-European speakers of Germanic languages whose origins are obscure, but who inhabited southern Sweden, the Danish peninsula, and northern Germany during the late Bronze Age. In later centuries various groups of Germanic peoples migrated south and west at the expense of Celtic peoples and other inhabitants. The artistic styles of the Germanic peoples are often associated with portable objects, including weapons and personal ornaments.

Refers to the movement in architecture and design in the late 1860s and 1870s marked by an aesthetic of wealth and affluence and characterized by elaborate embellishments such as carved wooden latticework and the addition of the veranda derived from the Picturesque period of English architecture of the 1830s. The style is prevalent in resorts such as Cape May and Martha's Vineyard and in opera houses and mansions of the boomtown mining colonies of the old West.

golden section
Canon of proportion based on the ratio between two unequal parts of a whole when the proportion of the smaller to the larger is equal to that of the larger to the whole.

Style of architecture and design first popular in the United States in the 1950s, typified by roadside buildings such as coffee shops, motels, gas stations, and signs. The style is characterized by bold, angular forms and an intensive use of steel, glass, and neon inspired by The Space Age, science fiction, and car culture. Although origin of the term is unknown, it is speculated to have come from Googie's Coffee Shop in Los Angeles, California, and has since been used to describe similar designs.

Gothic (Medieval)
Refers to the style and period that began in northern France in the mid-twelfth century, and spread to the rest of western Europe during the next 100 years. It evolved into the Renaissance at different times in different parts of Europe. The style evolved in cathedral architecture and is characterized by immense interiors, towers, spires, complex and detailed images in stone, paint, and glass, and soaring height facilitated by pointed arches and flying buttresses. The style also flourished in stained glass, sculpture, elaborate altarpieces, wall painting, and manuscript illumination where it typically features bright color, elongated proportions, intricate detail, and emotional narrative content.

Gothic (Migration culture or period)
Refers to the period and artistic styles associated with the Goths, a Germanic people who probably originated in Scandinavia and migrated to the southern shore of the Baltic Sea after defeating Vandals and other Germanic people in the area, and then migrated to the Black Sea in the second century CE. The term is particularly associated with the great wave of migration in the fifth century CE by the two branches of Goths, the Ostrogoths in Italy and the Visigoths in Spain.

Gothic Revival
Refers mainly to the style in English and American architecture and decorative arts from the mid-18th century to the mid-19th century. The style is characterized by the use of rosettes, pinnacles, tracery, foils, and polychrome effects inspired by Gothic architecture and reproduced with the aim of historical accuracy.

Grand Rapids
Use to describe a type of mass-produced American furniture produced in Grand Rapids, Michigan, particularly between the 1850s and 1920s.

Greek Revival
Refers to the style of architecture and decorative arts in Europe and the United States from the 1750s to ca. 1840, characterized by the use of Classical Greek forms and ornament. Inspired by 18th century archaeological discoveries, it attempted to closely follow original models.

green design (environmental concept)
Methods of design that are conscious of the ozone-depleting and polluting effects of building materials and processes, that encourage energy and natural resource conservation and recyclability, and are, on the whole, ecologically sound.

Gros Ventre (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

No description available for this term.

Haida (culture or style)
Refers to the artwork of the Haida-speaking North American Indians of what is now the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Can., and the southern part of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, U.S. The Alaskan Haida are called Kaigani.

Harlem Renaissance
Refers to the flowering of literary, musical, and artistic creativity and production that was focused n the primarily African American neighborhood of Harlem in New York City in the 1920s. Artists of the movement were also active in Paris and other cities. The movement radically revitalized the cultural aspirations and confidence of African Americans by exploring the psychological and emotional uniqueness of the African American community through art.

Refers to the highly individualized style that developed in Ireland beginning in the seventh century, particularly in the monastic communities. The style is especially evident in manuscript illuminations and sculpture, and apparently developed from the melding of Germanic Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, and Early Christian art. It is characterized by brilliant colors and opulent ornamentation composed of extremely intricate, interlaced lines, abstract shapes, animals, and flat, stylized human forms.

Hidatsa (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

High Gothic
Refers to the period and style of Gothic art of the late 12th through the 13th centuries in France and elsewhere in Europe, marked by the achievement of Gothic ideals in architecture and other arts. The style is characterized in sculpture and painting by a return to the balance and naturalism of the sculpture of classical Greece and Rome. The style in architecture is often characterized by elegant, lofty proportions, movement toward a sense of greater void than solid, and symmetry in design, which often was not carried out in execution as designs were often altered or left unfinished. In ecclesiastical architecture, designs typically include twin towers on the western facade, shortened transepts, three- or four-story elevations, flying buttresses, central rose windows, and extensive campaigns of ever more sophisticated sculpture and stained glass.

High Victorian
Refers to the Victorian style, mainly in architecture and decorative arts, produced from about 1850 to about 1870. While the Gothic Revival still dominated, High Victorian architecture and decorative arts demonstrate a more eclectic use of Gothic forms and a greater interest in color, texture, and plastic effects.

Refers to the style of interior design and architecture popular in Europe and North America in the 1970s. In interior design, the style is characterized by the re-utilization of industrial materials, products, and equipment for use as home furnishings. In architecture, the style is characterized by the use of sleek lines, space-age materials, and pre-fabricated parts, with the purpose of exploring the limits of technology.

Faiths that occurred in the early years of Buddhism, in South and Southeast Asia. In Hindu-Buddhism, ideas and dieties of the two faiths were combined, as Buddhism first grew out of Hinduism in India in the 6th century BCE.

No description available for this term.

No description available for this term.

No description available for this term.

Culture of a Siouan-speaking tribe of Native Americans, native to the present-day states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and parts of Iowa and Illinois. The two remaining federally recognized are the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin and the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska.

Refers to an early culture and style that existed mainly in the Sonoran Desert of what is now central and southern Arizona. The culture is noted for the first use of irrigation by the southwestern farmers, for the establishment of permanent settlements of pit houses and above-ground apartment-like structures, and for distinctive tools and art works, including ornaments and mosaics fashioned of shells imported from the Gulf of California, clay figurines, and pottery, which is gray ware or buff with decoration in iron red. Some experts believe that the Hohokam arrived in the area around 300 BCE, while others place their arrival around 500 CE. Disagreement also exists regarding their origins, which may be either from Mexico or as descendents of the Cochise people. Further disagreement exists regarding whether their descendants are Papago, Pima, and other Southwestern groups, or if the Hohokam moved out of the area in the fifteenth century.

No description available for this term.

Hopi (culture or style)
Style and culture of the westernmost group of Pueblo Indians, situated in what is now northeastern Arizona, on the edge of the Painted Desert. They speak a Shoshonean language of Uto-Aztecan stock. The precise origin of the Hopi is unknown, although it is thought that they and other Pueblo peoples descended from the Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi).

Style and culture of one of the seven branches of the Lakota Sioux; they fought alongside Sitting Bull in the 1870s. The majority of Hunkpapa Lakota now reside in the Standing Rock Indian Reservation of South and North Dakota.

Indian Knoll
No description available for this term.

Existing, constituted, or carried on between different nations.

International Style (modern European architecture style)
Refers to the style of architecture that emerged in Holland, France, and Germany after World War I and spread throughout the world, becoming the dominant architectural style until the 1970s. The style is characterized by an emphasis on volume over mass, the use of lightweight, mass-produced, industrial materials, rejection of all ornament and color, repetitive modular forms, and the use of flat surfaces, typically alternating with areas of glass.

No description available for this term.

Refers to the artwork produced by any member of the North American Indian tribes speaking a language of the Iroquoian family, notably the Cayuga, Cherokee, Huron, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora, in addition to the Iroquois proper. The name Iroquois is a French derivation of Irinakhoiw, meaning "rattlesnakes." They call themselves Hodenosaunee, meaning "people of the longhouse." The Iroquoian linguistic groups occupied a continuous territory around Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Erie, in present-day New York state and Pennsylvania and southern Ontario and Quebec.

Italian Medieval styles
Styles belonging to Italian Medieval cultures.

Italian Renaissance revival
No description available for this term.

Italian Villa Style
A version of the Italianate style, usually restricted to domestic architecture and including a tall tower.

Italianate (North American architecture styles)
A mid-19th-century North American residential architecture style, often featuring a low-pitched hipped roof topped by a belvedere.

Refers to the style and period that developed after the conquest of Constantinople by the armies of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and lasted into the early 14th century. The style is particularly evident in southern and central Italy, and was fertilized by the import of Byzantine portable objects, by Greek artists in Italy, and by western artists returning from Byzantine territiories. Italo-Byzantine style is characterized by the merging of Byzantine themes, figural types, and decorative elements with Hellenistic-Roman illusionism, Gothic fluency of line, and local Italian traditions.

Jacobean (culture or period)
Period, culture, and English style in architecture and fine and decorative arts during the reign of James I from 1603 to 1625. Detailed and jewel-like portraits dominate easel and miniature painting while decorative arts are characterized by rich carving, bulb and twist shapes and motifs including coats of arms, thistles, and pomegranates. In architecture, Renaissance forms and motifs combine with details derived from Northern European Mannerism and include features such as Dutch gables, balustrades, and strapwork.

Jacobean Revival
Refers to the style of British architecture, furniture, and decorative arts during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that revived forms from the Jacobean period of the 17th century. Featuring curved gables, elaborate brick chimneys, and mullioned and transomed windows, Jacobean Revival architecture and decorative motifs were also mixed with Elizabethan Revival and Queen Anne styles.

Refers to the 19th century English revival style in architecture and decorative arts that combines characteristics of both the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods.

Japanese architecture styles
Architecture styles belonging to Japanese culture.

Japanese styles (styles)
Styles belonging to Japanese cultures.

Style, culture, or ethnicity of American people of Japanese heritage.

Jesuit (Christian order)
A Roman Catholic order for men founded in 1540 by St. Ignatius of Loyola, a Spanish soldier who experienced a religious conversion while convalescing from a battle wound. It is a non-contemplative order requiring strict obedience, compliance with Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises, and special loyalty to the pope. The Jesuits abandoned many medieval practices including obligatory regular penances or fasts; a common dress; and the choral recitation of the liturgical office. Other innovations include their very centralized form of authority with life tenure for the head of the order; gradation of members; a probationary period of many years before final vows; and lack of a female branch. Jesuits carry out many kinds of missionary work with special emphasis on education; the order has founded many colleges and universities throughout the world. The Jesuits have been leading apologists for the Roman Catholic Church, particularly during the Counter-Reformation. In more recent times, the order has been highly influential in modernizing the Church.

Jugendstil (German
No description available for this term.

Jugendstil (German, Austrian Art Nouveau)
Refers to the German and Austrian variation of Art Nouveau, named after the magazine "Jugend" that had been published in Munich since 1896. The style differs from Belgian and French Art Nouveau by a more restrained use of decoration. Jugendstil replaced the exuberance and naturalism of other Art Nouveau styles with a comparatively subdued aesthetic that was often almost unrecognizably, or not at all derived from nature.

Kinetic (style)
Refers broadly to artworks in a variety of styles that incorporate some aspect of motion, including machines, mobiles, and actual objects in motion. Orginating between 1913 and 1920 with the works of Marcel Duchamp, Naum Gabo, and Vladamir Tatlin, the style reached its peak in the 1960s.

Kiowa (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

Lakota (culture or style)
Refers to the culture of one of the three main divisions of the Sioux. The Lakota had seven main autonomous divisions: Blackfoot; Brulé (Upper and Lower); Hunkpapa; Miniconjou; Oglala; Sans Arcs; and Oohenonpa.

Late Baroque
Refers generally to the final years of the Baroque style, from approximately 1675 to 1715..

Late Gothic
Refers to the last years of the Gothic period and style in architecture and other arts in Europe, beginning in the late 13th century. The style is marked by ever greater regional differences that often include a tendency toward extreme complexity, effects of surprise and fantasy, ambitious play of light and shade, and overwhelming richness of linear forms. For individual regional styles, see <Medieval regional styles>.

Late Medieval
Use with reference to the period c.1250 to as late as 1500 where the terms "Gothic (Medieval)" or "Late Gothic" are not appropriate.

Late Renaissance
Refers to a period and style of the middle and later decades of the 16th century in Italy and northern Europe. The style is characterized by an evolution from the calm, serene High Renaissance to more emotional, active, asymmetrical compositions with more innovative applications of colors, materials, and techniques. Many works of this period can also be associated with Mannerism.

Late Victorian
Refers to the Victorian style, mainly in architecture and decorative arts, produced from about 1870 to about 1901. While the Gothic Revival still dominated, architecture and decorative arts reflected a renewed interest in Classical, Baroque, and vernacular forms and encompassed new influences such as the Queen Anne and the Beaux Arts styles. In decorative arts, the influence of Japanese art objects, the Arts and Crafts movement, and the Aesthetic movement simplified the Victorian tendency toward heavy ornamentation.

Laurel (style)
No description available for this term.

Liberian (African national style)
Style and culture of the nation of Liberia, a West African state founded in 1822.

General name for a sedimentary rock existing in many varieties, consisting primarily of calcite or dolomite.

log cabin
No description available for this term.

Louis XIV
Refers to the style of architecture and decorative arts during the reign of Louis XIV from 1643 to 1715. Luxurious yet formal and reflecting Classical and Baroque forms and motifs, the style is associated with the King's patronage and with the furniture, tapestries, and decoration created for his palace at Versailles.