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Mesoamerican
Designates the styles of the Pre-Columbian region comprising present-day central and central-southern Mexico, the Yucatán Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador, and parts of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Culturally, it refers to a set of technological, social, economic, religious and political traits shared by several different cultures, including the Aztec, Huastec, Maya, Mixtec, Olmec, Tarascan, Teotihuacßsn, Toltec, Totonac, West Mexican and Zapotec.

Mexican
Culture and nationality of the nation of Mexico or its people.

Mexican Muralist (movement)
Refers to the movement in Mexico, spearheaded by artists Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siquieros, which sought to elevate and legitimize mural works as a recognized Mexican art form. The Mexican Muralist School, which included Rufino Tamayo, Juan Soriano, and José Clemente Orozco, politicized the movement, often depicting scenes from the Mexican Revolution, aspects of the nation's modernization, the relentless social upheavals with class struggles in satirical and life-like styles.

Mid-Century Modernist
Refers to the architectural, interior and product design style that generally describes mid-20th century trends from ca. 1933 to 1965. The term was first used in the book "Mid-Century Modern: Furniture of the 1950s" (1983) by Cara Greenberg. In architecture, the style is characterized by the International Style and Bauhaus movements, the work of Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe. In design, sleek Scandinavian style furniture and objects were influential.

Midcentury
No description available for this term.

Middle Eastern
Styles and cultures existing in the extensive area that includes the nations of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa. The term was formerly used to also include Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Burma.

military engineering
Art and practice of designing and building military fortifications and other installations, and building and maintaining lines of military communication and transportation. It includes providing utilities such as water and power to combat armies, design and construction of facilities to transport armies and weapons, particularly heavy artillery, the use or neutralization of conventional explosives, development of topographical maps and engineering intelligence, and the development of equipment necessary to carry out these operations.

mimetic buildings
Buildings that physically illustrate their name or function in their plan or elevation, for example a dairy stand shaped like a milk bottle.

Minimal
A style developed in the mid 20th century, characterized by simplicity and lack of decoration to the point of starkness. The movement advocated reducing art to the state of non-art by removing nature and culture, resulting in artwork in pure, simple forms and objects placed randomly. The term can be extended to all art, including literature, design, music, visual art, and performance. With specific reference to the visual arts, the term is used to describe an abstract art movement and style, predominantly of sculpture, that flourished in the mid- and late 1960s. With specific reference to music, it refers to a style that emerged in the United States in the 1960s featuring prolonged repetition of short passages and unvarying harmonies.

Minton (ceramics style)
Refers to the various styles of English porcelain and earthenware produced by Thomas Minton in Staffordshire beginning in 1793: majolica, Parian ware, Palissy ware, and blue printed earthenware.

Mission (modern North American style)
Late 19th-century and early 20th-century American decorative arts style, principally with reference to furniture. Use "Mission Style" for a subtype of the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture style.

Mission Style (Spanish Colonial Revival style)
A subtype of the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture style, characterized by simplicity of form and ornamentation. Use "Mission" for the late 19th-century, early 20th-century American decorative arts style, applied principally to furniture.

Mississippian
Refers to a Native American culture and style evident in North America from around 800 CE to the mid-18th century, when its last representatives, the Natchez, declined and were dispersed. It was prevalent in the southeast and mid-continent in the river valleys of what are now the states of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota and the Great Plains. The culture was based on agricultural development of the bottomlands and government by theocratic village-states. Village architecture is characterized by dwellings arranged around oval or pyramidal earth mounds and a central ceremonial plaza. The style of decorated utilitarian and ceremonial objects is characterized by work in copper, shell, stone, clay, and feathers, often with elaborate designs including human figures, animal motifs, and geometric shapes.

Missouri
No description available for this term.

modern
No description available for this term.

modern (generic time frame)
Being in existence at this time; although the time frame varies depending upon context, the term generally refers to a person, place, thing, or event dating no earlier than 75 years from the present time.

Modern (style or period)
Period and styles of painting, sculpture, graphic arts, and architecture dating from the late 19th century to the present date and characterized by a rejection of traditional artistic forms and conventions. It typically reflects changing social, economic, and intellectual conditions. Modern art includes numerous movements and theories. It differs from contemporary art, which does not carry the implication of a non-traditional style, but instead refers only to the time period in which the work was created. 'Modern' and 'contemporary' are inherently fluid terms. The term 'modern' sometimes more narrowly refers to art up until the 1960s or 1970s.

modern American
Styles, periods, cultures, and movements of America in modern times.

modern Chinese styles and periods
No description available for this term.

modern European revival styles
Modern revival styles belonging to European cultures.

Modern Movement
Use with reference to the collective actions and objectives of Modernist architecture, especially, but not exclusively, of the International Style. For art, architecture, or design more generally, use "Modernist."

modern North American
Styles, periods, cultures, and movements of North America in modern times.

modern Slovenian styles and movements
No description available for this term.

Modern Style (Art Nouveau )
A variation of Art Nouveau based on French works and influenced by works of Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris; the term is particularly applied to architecture and furniture design.

Modernisme (Art Nouveau )
The variation of the Art Nouveau movement in Spain. From the 1890s to the early 1900s, the style appeared in the visual and decorative arts, and prominently in the architecture, with special relevance of Antoni Gaudí. Although as a cultural trend it appeared in the whole of Spain, as far as the arts are concerned, it was particularly widespread in Catalonia, and from there the style and the influences extended to other Spanish cities.

Modernist
Refers to the succession of 20th-century avant-garde art and architectural movements formed in a reaction to social modernity. Modernism was eclipsed by the Post-Modernism movement, which began in the 1970s.

Monacan
Style and culture of the Native American people who inhabited the upper James River valley of Virginia, or the present-day group in Amherst County, Virginia, claiming descent from these people. Distinct from the "Algonkin" who share the same original Algonquian language heritage, but inhabit Northern Ontario and Quebec along the Ottawa River in Canada.

Monterey Style
Nineteenth-century architectural style developed in Monterey, California, as a blend between local adobe structures and Yankee woodwork.

Moorish Revival
Refers to the style in 19th-century European architecture and decorative arts characterized by Hispano-Moresque forms and motifs such as honey comb vaulting, arabesques, and horseshoe arches.

Mound Builder
Formerly used to refer to prehistoric North American people who inhabited the Ohio and Mississippi valleys and other areas, characterized by the erection of mounds. It is now understood that this was not an identifiable culture, but that the mounds were instead constructed by a variety of peoples for various purposes.

mounds
Piles of earth heaped up for landmarks, monuments, or as bases for other structures; for piles of earth and other debris resulting from successive superimposed occupation sites, use "tells." For piles of earth built over grave sites, use "burial mounds." Use "cairns" for purposely erected piles of stones.

naive art
Refers to art created by non-professional artists or artisans who have not had formal training and are often self-taught. It typically displays the artist's poor grasp of anatomy and lacks mastery of conventional perspective and other hallmarks of trained artists. It includes painting, sculpture, embroidery, quilts, toys, ships' figureheads, decoys, painted targets, and other objects, and often refers to such objects created specifically in 19th- and 20th-century Europe and North America. It is generally distinguished from "outsider art," which includes the more extravagant psychotic drawings and other art created or collected according to a philosophy of the avoidance of, rather than simply a lack of, traditional training. It is also usually distinct from "folk art," which is created according to specific cultural traditions.

Narragansett (culture or style)
Refers to the culture of the Narragansett, an Algonkian-speaking Indian tribe that occupied most of what is now the state of Rhode Island west of Narragansett Bay.

Native American
Typically reserved to refer narrowly to the cultures of the native peoples of the United States and Canada, excluding the Eskimos and Aleuts. For the indigenous peoples of Canada use the term "First Nations." For the broader concept of the cultures of any native peoples of Central America, South America, North America, or the West Indies who are considered to belong to the Mongoloid division of the human species, use "Amerindian (culture)."

Native Chaco styles
Styles belonging to Native Chaco cultures.

Navajo (culture or style)
The style and culture of a populous North American Indian group who live primarily in New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah, speaking an Apachean language which is classified in the Athabaskan language family. At some point in prehistory, the Navajo and Apache migrated to the Southwest from Canada, where most other Athabaskan-speaking peoples still live; although the exact timing of the relocation is unknown, it is thought to have been between 1100 and 1500 CE. These early Navajo were mobile hunters and gatherers; after moving to the Southwest, however, they adopted many of the practices of the sedentary, farming Pueblo Indians near whom they settled.

Neo Art Deco
No description available for this term.

Neo-Constructivist
Post-1945 art movement beginning in Russia, organized by Lev Nusberg (born 1937), Francisco Infante (born 1943) and Vyacheslav Koleychuk (born 1941).

Neo-Expressionist
Refers to the style of art, predominantly of painting, inspired by German Expressionism that gained popularity in Italy, Germany, and America in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The style is characterized by large, figurative works, crudely and rapidly painted, often with objects imbedded in their surfaces, such as broken plates or straw.

Néo-Grec (modern French style)
Refers to the French style in architecture and decorative arts during the Second Empire from 1852 to 1871 and characterized by polychromy and decorative motifs such as griffins, masks, lotus buds, and the Greek fret pattern. An eclectic form of Neoclassicism, it was inspired by Greece, Rome, Egypt, and archaeological discoveries in Pompeii as well as the Adam and Louis XVI styles.

Neo-Rationalist
No description available for this term.

Neoclassical
Refers to the style of European and American architecture and fine and decorative arts between the mid-18th century and the mid-19th century inspired by archaeological discoveries in the Mediterranean and Near East and characterized by the imitation of Greek and Roman forms and motifs. Also considered a reaction to Rococo opulence, Neoclassical works are often linear, symmetrical, and even severe.

Neotraditional
Describes elements of the built environment, primarily in newly constructed suburban areas of the United States, characterized by a mix of land uses, spaces and buildings scaled to pedestrians, public green space, and an emphasis on mass transit rather than on automobiles, elements typical of traditional American small towns; popular from the 1980s. For the American planning movement incorporating neotraditional design principles, use "New Urbanism."

New Deal
Use with reference to projects sponsored by any of the United States government programs established under the New Deal administration and operating at various times between 1933 and 1943.

New Modernist
Refers to the international movement in architecture begun in the late-1970s. The style is characterized by a combination of a Late-Modernist emphasis on function, technology and purity with Deconstructionist notions of complexity and displacement.

New Urbanism
The planning movement in the United States of the 1990s espousing a return to traditional small-town design features for newly constructed suburbs or redeveloped urban neighborhoods. To describe the architectural elements of the movement, incorporating such features as pedestrian spaces, mass transit, and mixed land use, use "Neotraditional."

Nez Percé (culture or style)
Culture and style of the Nez Percé Native American people, who now live in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is believed they descended from the Old Cordilleran Culture, which moved from the Rocky Mountains.

Nonobjective
Refers specifically to Abstract art in which the forms have had no beginning or reference to nature.

Norman
Refers to the period and style associated with the Normans, who were Norsemen from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland who raided the European coasts in the eighth and ninth centuries CE, settled in northern France in the early tenth century, reigned over the indigenous Frankish population, adopted their language, and eventually founded the duchy of Normandy. From Normandy, the Normans expanded to the British Isles, southern Italy, and Sicily. The style is particularly evident in designs of weapons and armor, the motte-and-bailey castle, and grand Romanesque ecclesiastical and monastic structures. The style is characterized by the brilliant adaptation and exploitation of indigenous local styles combined with some influences of the Byzantine east, which were introduced to the area by Norman adventurers and pilgrims.

Norman Revival
Refers to the 19th-century English architectural style based on Norman forms and motifs such as round arches, battlements, and barrel and groin vaults.

Northwest Coast Native American styles
Styles belonging to Northwest Coast Native American cultures.

Norwegian (culture)
Refers to the culture of the modern nation of Norway, or in general to the cultures that have occupied the western part of the Scandinavian peninsula in northwestern Europe.

Ojibwa (culture or style)
Refers to the culture of the Ojibwa, who were Algonquian-speaking Indians who formerly lived along the northern shore of Lake Huron and both shores of Lake Superior from what is now Minnesota to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota.

Old English (culture or style)
Refers to the style of English domestic architecture in the second half of the nineteenth century and characterized by the use of traditional English materials and forms such as mullioned windows, half-timbered walls, pitched roofs, and tall ornamental chimneys.

Omaha
No description available for this term.

Oneida (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

organic architecture
A philosophy of architectural design, emerging in the early 20th century, asserting that in structure and appearance a building should be based on organic forms and should harmonize with its natural environment.

Orientalism
Characteristics of oriental art or culture appearing in Western practice.

Osage (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

Oto
No description available for this term.

Ottawa
No description available for this term.

outsider art
Refers to art created or collected according to a philosophy of avoidance of the conventional fine art tradition. The concept generally refers to art that fits the ideal described by Jean Dubuffet, who posited that art should be inventive, non-conformist, unprocessed, spontaneous, insulated from all social and cultural influences, "brut," created without thought of financial gain or public recognition, and based upon autonomous inspiration, in direct contrast to the stereotypes of the traditional or official artistic culture. Dubuffet sought such art in the work of psychiatric patients and other insulated individuals. It is generally distinct from "naive art," which is created by those without formal training, but not necessarily in accordance with the principles described above. It is also typically distinct from "folk art," which is made according to the rules and traditions of a particular culture.

Paiute (culture or style)
Style and culture of either of two distinct North American Indian groups that speak languages of the Numic group of the Uto-Aztecan family.

Paleo-Indian (Pre-Columbian North American)
No description available for this term.

Palladian
Includes works influenced by the architectural style of Andrea Palladio; excludes works by Palladio himself.

Palladian Revival
Architectural movement and style which began in England ca. 1715-1770, and was later seen in The United States in the early 19th century. Taking its inspiration from the work of 16th century Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508-1580) and his 17th century British disciple Inigo Jones (1573-1652), the style is seen as a reaction to the Baroque architecture of the time, and was based on the symmetry and forms of classical Greek and Roman temples. Palladian Revival is seen mostly in residential architecture and large country estates.

Pennsylvania German
Refers to the style and culture of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century German settlers in Pennsylvania and their descendants. Their culture is characterized by a retention of traditional German styles of cookery and craftsmanship, often recognized by distinctive decorative motifs, including geometric hex signs painted on barns and floral and other patterns stenciled on furniture and housewares. Some descendents drive horse-drawn buggies, wear simple, traditional clothing, and live according to strict religious principles. The large flow of immigrants from the Rhine area of Germany was encouraged by the religious tolerance of William Penn's colonial government. Immigrants were members of several groups, including Mennonites, Quakers, Amish, Moravians, Schwenckfelders, and Dunkers (or German Baptists); later immigrants included Lutherans and members of the Reformed churches.

Perpendicular Style
Refers to the last phase of Gothic architectural style in England, as coined by English architect and antiquarian, Thomas Rickman, in the early 19th century. The term originally referred primarily to window tracery from the late 14th century, but now is applied more generally to the broader style and to a wider time frame, roughly from 1330 to the 17th century. The style is characterized by density of pattern, the fan vault, the loss of bulky convex pier profiles to favor elements composed of a network of elegant, flat lines, the use of vertical mullions and regular horizontal divisions in window tracery, these same designs continued into the adjoining masonry, and the general effect in interior spaces of a delicate cage lodged inside a sturdy framework.

Picturesque, the
Aesthetic concept or expression, arising in Europe first in painting of the 18th century and later in architecture of the 19th century, characterized by rough, curious, or irregular forms; it applies particularly to rustic landscapes and crumbling buildings having neither the awe-inspiring grandeur of the Sublime nor the order and regularity of beauty.

pilasters
Shallow piers or rectangular columns projecting only slightly from a wall and, in classical architecture, conforming with one of the orders.(PDARC) Common also on furniture.

Pima (Native American)
North American Indians who traditionally lived along the Gila and Salt rivers in Arizona, in what was the core area of the prehistoric Hohokam culture. The Pima speak a Uto-Aztecan language and are usually considered to be the descendants of the Hohokam. Like their presumed ancestors, the Pima were traditionally sedentary farmers living in one-room houses and utilizing the rivers for irrigation. Some hunting and gathering were done to supplement the diet, and in drought years, which occurred on the average of one year in five, crop failure made hunting and gathering the sole mode of subsistence. During these dry years jackrabbits and mesquite beans became the group's dietary staples.

Plains Cree
No description available for this term.

Plano
No description available for this term.

Plateau Native American styles
Styles belonging to Plateau Native American cultures.

Plateresque
Refers to a style in Spanish and Spanish Colonial architecture and ornament in the 15th and 16th centuries. The term was first used by Diego Ortiz de Zúñiga in 1677 to describe a facade. It means "silversmith-like" and is characterized by richly ornamented surfaces, as were common in a silversmith's intricate work. The style is derived from Late Gothic, Islamic, and Italian Renaissance art. In architecture the style is typically seen in smaller buildings and is characterized by twisted columns, heraldic escutcheons, sinuous scrolls, and florid, jewelry-like ornament that masks the structure beneath.

Pop (fine arts styles)
Refers to the international art and cultural movement that flourished in Britain and America in the 1950s and 1960s. Influenced by Dada, the movement advocated the use of everyday imagery, such as advertisements, signs, and comic strips, executed in the techniques and graphic styles of mass media. The movement respresented a move toward a more objective, immediate art form after the dominance of Abstract Expressionism.

Postmodern
Refers to the style and period of art and architecture that developed in the 1960s and after, when there was a clear challenge to the dominance of Modernism. Generally speaking, it advocated a pluralistic approach to the arts and it stated that Modernism had failed because of a lack of a coded language of meaning to the viewer. The term was first used by Spanish poet Federico de Onis in 1934 and later by Arnold Toynbee's "A Study of History" in 1938, but it was in the 1970s when it came into wide use in connection with a trend in architecture that employed selective Eclecticism and Historicism. This resulted in structures that displayed a knowledge of Modernism, but also playful, whimsical, applications of Classical elements. In the other arts, such as painting, there was a return to a classical approach to the human figure, style, and composition, often resulting in Old Masters style works, but with updated imagery, such as the inclusion of current celebrities, or artists from the past. In photography, as well as painting, a narrative or story telling approach to work also became popular. By the early 1980s, many work dubbed Postmodern, were purchased by the corporate art market, where large sums were paid for the work of relatively new artists. By the 1990s, Postmodernism showed signs of slowing down in terms of popularity, when more traditional Modernist forms began to re-emerge.

Prairie School
Refers to the movement, centered mostly in the American Midwest among architects, notably Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright, united by the rejection of revivalist styles and by the development of a new architectural vision based on the faithful expression of the natural qualities of a region or nation. The style generally favored elongated horizontal arrangements that blended naturally with the open American landscape.

Pre-Columbian (American)
Refers to the aboriginal Native American cultures that developed in North, South and Central America before the arrival of Europeans beginning in the late 15th century CE. The term is sometimes used more narrowly to only refer to early cultures from Mexico and Central and South America.

Pre-Columbian Central Mississippi Valley styles
Styles belonging to Pre-Columbian Central Mississippi Valley cultures.

Pre-Columbian Pueblo styles
Styles of pottery belonging to Pre-Columbian Pueblo cultures.

Pre-Columbian Southeastern Woodland periods
Periods related to Pre-Columbian Southeastern Woodland cultures.

Pre-Raphaelite
Refers to the style in fine arts originating from the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group of English artists active from 1848 to 1853. Inspired by Italian art prior to Raphael, the style is characterized by Romantic and Medieval themes with moral undertones, bright colors, and close-knit, detailed compositions.

prehistoric
Refers to the period antecedent to the first contemporary written accounts of a people. The time span for this period varies according to specific local habitation patterns and in different scholarly disciplines.

prehistoric sites
Sites that contain evidence of prehistoric human activity, often through archaeological investigation.

Psychedelic
Refers to the art and cultural movement of the mid- to late 1960s that was international in scope, but flourished mainly on the American West Coast. The movement advocated the exploration of the subconscious mind through drugs, sensory deprivation, and a total immersion of the senses through music and light shows. In the visual arts, the style is characterized by obsessively detailed images, ambiguous representations of space, and acidic colors.

Pueblo (Native American style)
No description available for this term.

Pueblo Revival
Refers mainly to the style of architecture found in the Southwestern United States which draws its inspiration from the Pueblos and the Spanish missions in New Mexico. The style developed at the turn of the 20th century and reached its greatest popularity in the 1920s and 1930s, although it is still commonly used for new buildings. Pueblo Revival imitates the appearance of traditional adobe construction, however through the use of modern materials such as concrete and brick. Typical attributes include rounded corners, irregular parapets, and thick, battered walls used to simulate adobe. Roofs are always flat, and a common feature is the use of wooden roof beams that are often decorative rather than supportive.

Quaker
A Christian sect that arose in the mid-17th century in England and the American colonies, advocating direct inward apprehension of God, emphasizing the immediacy of Christ's teaching and guidance, and rejecting outward rites and an ordained ministry. The Quaker system of church government centers around the monthly meeting. The group has a long tradition of opposing war and actively working for peace. Quakerism represents the extreme left wing of the 17th-century Puritan movement. Despite the fact that the term "Quaker" was probably originally derisive, it is used by the Quakers themselves today.

Queen Anne
Period, culture, and English style in architecture and decorative arts during the reign of Queen Anne from 1702 to 1714 and known for its straightforward simplicity. In architecture it is characterized by red brick, sash windows, and hipped roofs, applied largely to domestic structures. Decorative arts reflect a move toward simple ornamentation with the use of plain veneers, ball and claw feet, cabriole legs, and scallop shell motifs.

Queen Anne Style
Refers to the style of domestic architecture but also of furniture in England and the United States in the late 19th century. Drawn from the architecture of Queen Anne's reign (1702-1714) and mixed with features found in 17th century Dutch architecture, buildings are characterized by asymmetrical or irregular plans, the use of red brick and stone dressing, broken pediments, sash windows, and shaped gables while furniture features cabriole legs.

Quonset hut
No description available for this term.

Realist (modern European fine arts styles)
Refers to the style of Western art that existed from the mid- through the late nineteenth century and developed in reaction to the Romantic style. It is characterized by subject matter, depictions of figures, and techniques that emphasize reality with precision and vividness of detail, including unpleasant characteristics, in contrast to what was considered the idealized, sanitized, and beautified Romantic view of the world. To indicate in a more general sense any phase of artistic tradition where the real is emphasized over the idealized, use "realism (artistic form of expression)."

Regency (British)
Refers to the style of architecture and decorative arts produced in England during the regency of George, Prince of Wales from 1811 to 1820 and then including the period of his reign as George IV from 1820 to 1830. Varied in style, furniture and architecture reflect a combination of classical and French Empire styles with Egyptian and Orientalizing motifs.

Regency Revival
Revival style found in the United States in the 1930s, that employees elements of Georgian and Regency style prototypes, usually resulting in buildings two stories high with a hipped roof, and brick walls with quoins at the corners and sometimes at the main entrance. Its also often features double-hung windows with shutters; an entrance porch, and a small octagonal window above the door.

regionalism (form of expression)
Refers to a general consciousness of and loyalty to a distinct subnational or supranational area usually characterized by a common culture, background, or interests. For the specific movement in American painting in the 1930s and 1940s, use "Regionalist."

Regionalist (American Scene)
Refers to the movement within American Scene painting, concentrated in the rural midwestern United States in the 1930s and capturing the flavor of life there in a literal painting style.(PDAT) For the concept of a general consciousness of and loyalty to a distinct subnational or supranational area, use "regionalism."

religious art
Use broadly for art depicting religious subjects or for art used in worship.

Renaissance
Refers to the intellectual movement, style, and culture that originated in Italy in the late 14th century, spread throughout Europe, and culminated in the 16th century. Style is characterized by a deliberate reference to the art, architecture, literature, and ideals of Classical Rome and Greece.

Renaissance Revival
Refers to the style in 19th-century European and American architecture and decorative arts initially inspired by the Italian Renaissance and characterized by pilasters, rustication, and classical motifs. Later, it includes Renaissance styles based on regional or national variations such as the Elizabethan and Jacobean revivals and the French Renaissance revival.

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