SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here.

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Encampments formed by troops for long stays while on a campaign, especially during winter.

Deep, steep-sided land depressions, often having a river at the bottom; common to arid and semi-arid areas. Distinct from "valleys (landforms)," which tend to have a flattish landscape rather than high, precipitous slopes. Distinct from "gorges (landforms)," which tend to be smaller, narrower, and more rocky.

Cape Cod houses
Timber framed, one or one and a half story, side-gabled houses, with a central chimney, steeply-pitched roof, and typically clapboarded or shingled siding. These were small houses found in colonial New England, particularly Massachusetts, during the 18th century. The Cape Cod house also became popular in the United states as a revival style in the 20th century.

capes (landforms)
Land areas, more prominent than a point, projecting into the sea and marking a notable change in coastal direction.

capitols (legislative buildings)
Buildings in the United States that are occupied by a legislature; may also house one or more of the other branches of government.

Rooms equipped for card playing.

Sets of stationary hanging bells, normally for outdoor use in an open tower chamber or on a high frame, played manually from a keyboard, automatically by clockwork, or electronically by pneumatic mechanism. More extensive than chimes, their range covers two octaves or more, with all but the lowest notes forming a fully chromatic scale. They are typically played with a keyboard, by which keys mechanically activate levers and wires that connect to metal clappers that strike the inside of the bells. They are often housed in the bell tower of a church or other municipal building.

Carnegie libraries (institutions)
Libraries originally funded by Andrew Carnegie; found in the United States, Canada, Ireland, and Great Britain.

carousels (rides)
Structures consisting of a revolving circular platform with seats, often in the form of horses or other animals, on which people may ride, usually to the accompaniment of mechanical or recorded music.

Roofed shelters for automobiles, often without walls; usually associated with or projecting from a separate building.

Small rooms, cubicles, alcoves, or enclosed study desks, such as in libraries, used for individual or semiprivate study.

carriage houses
Buildings or outbuildings separate from the living quarters designed or used for the storage of coaches, carriages, other vehicles, and often horses.

carriage museums (buildings)
Buildings that house and display horse-drawn carriages and related objects or documents.

cascades (water features)
Man-made stepped waterfalls, whether naturalistic or architectural in form. For similar natural or highly naturalistic features, use "waterfalls."

Case Study houses
Prototype single-family houses generally conceived as experiments in low-cost construction using the latest materials and incorporating Modernist forms. Prime examples are those sponsored by Arts and Architecture magazine and built in the Los Angeles area between 1945 and 1966.

casement windows
Windows having a sash that opens on hinges attached to the upright side of the frame.

Public entertainment buildings for meeting, dancing, and general recreation, often with eating and drinking facilities, music, and game rooms; for similar buildings equipped with gambling devices, use "gambling casinos."

castles (fortifications)
Buildings or groups of buildings intended primarily to serve as a fortified residence of a prince or nobleman.

cathedrals (buildings)
Churches that are the principal church of a diocese, serving as the seat of the bishop, or of the archbishop, primate, patriarch, or pope of the diocese. They are generally grandiose structures and house the "cathedra," which is the throne of the bishop.

cattle barns
Relatively large structures used to shelter beef cattle; for relatively large structures for dairy cow housing, use "dairy barns"; for relatively small structures used to house dairy or beef cows or bulls, use "cow houses;" for relatively small shelters having at least one open wall, use "cowsheds."

cattle ranches
Ranches devoted primarily to the raising of beef cattle.

catwalks (circulation elements)
No description is available for this term.

Roads or pathways raised above surrounding low, wet, or uneven ground.

cave dwellings
Dwellings that are made within natural caves or within caves that have been altered for habitation.

Large, subterranean, naturally formed chambers, with entrances from the surface.

Natural openings in the earth large enough for human exploration, the largest and most common being those formed by a chemical reaction between circulating groundwater and limestone or dolomite bedrock.

cellars (storerooms)
Rooms, often wholly or mostly below ground level, used for storage of food and often other items; for similar areas serving utility purposes or as living spaces, use "basements."

cells (interior spaces)
Single rooms usually housing only one person within a building having numerous similar rooms, as in a convent or in a prison.

cement plants
Facilities for the manufacture of cement, which is a construction material that is an ingredient of mortar and concrete.

In general, areas used for burial or entombment. Specifically, typically refers to relatively large public parks or grounds laid out expressly for the interment of the dead, and not being the yard of any church. Originally the term was derived from the Latin "cœmeterium," referring to Roman underground cemeteries or catacombs.

Sepulchral monuments erected to a person or persons buried elsewhere.

central business districts
The high-density cores of cities or towns, where activities are principally retail, commercial, service, and often governmental.

ceremonial mounds
Large mounds of earth or debris that were constructed for ceremonial purposes, usually built by ancient peoples and sometimes with an unknown purpose.

ceremonial sites
Sites that are used for ceremonial purposes; often an ancient site, sometimes the purpose of which is unknown.

ceremonial structures
Structures built or used primarily or exculsively for ceremonies or related activities.

chain link fences
Fences made of heavy steel wire which is interwoven in such a way as to provide a continuous mesh without ties or knots, except at the ends.

chain stores
Series of stores which belong to one firm, and sell the same type of merchandise. Series of stores which belong to one firm, and sell the same type of merchandise.

chair lifts (chairlike conveyances)
Refers to a series of chairlike elements suspended from an endless cable designed for carrying skiers up a slope.

chair rails
Horizontal strips, usually of wood, affixed to walls at a height which prevents the backs of chairs from damaging the wall surface.

Use both for Swiss herdsmen's houses, usually of wood with exposed structural members and overhanging upper floors, and for any house built in the Swiss style.

chambers (assembly spaces)
Rooms appropriated to the meetings of deliberative, legislative, or judicial bodies; by extension, may also be used for the private rooms of judges.

Spaces in Christian churches containing the high altar and reserved for the use of the clergy. Includes the choir when present. Use "choirs" for the spaces in Christian churches, generally between the altar area and the nave, reserved for choristers.

chandeliers (hanging lights)
Lighting devices designed to hang from the roof or ceiling having two or more branches, holding candles, burners, or lamps; often ornamental.

channels (water bodies)
Feature that is relatively long and narrow and axially located in relation to the waterway, such as used to designate the deepest part of streambeds where the main current runs, or stretches of sea between two land areas and linking two seas.

chapels (rooms or structures)
Rooms or small buildings that serve as sanctuaries or places of Christian worship. A chapel may be used for private worship in or attached to a church, palace, house, prison, monastery, or school. It may alternatively be used for public worship of the established Church, subordinate to or dependent upon the parish church, the accommodation supplied by which it in some way supplements. The concept includes both freestanding chapels and rooms or recesses serving as chapels in churches or other buildings. The Latin "cappella" or the French-derived "chappelle" or "chapelle" are occasionally used for "chapel" in English texts. In its original meaning, the term referred specifically to the shrine in which the kings of France preserved the cape (cloak) of St. Martin.

chapels of ease (buildings)
Church buildings constructed within the bounds of a parish for the attendance of those who cannot reach the parish church conveniently.

chapter houses
Designates assembly halls for the business meetings of religious or fraternal organizations.

chases (wall spaces)
Continuous recesses or grooves built into walls to receive pipes, ducts, and other elements.

Large country houses in France, which prior to the 16th century were usually fortified.

chemical plants
Factories in which chemicals are created or manipulated, whether natural or synthetic.

chevets (building spaces)
Combination of apse, ambulatory, and usually radial chapels of a church, especially French Gothic.

Chicago windows
Windows occupying the full width of a bay and divided into a large fixed sash flanked by a narrow movable sash on each side.

chicken hatcheries
Buildings or rooms equipped with heated lamps and other equipment used to facilitate the incubation and hatching of chickens' eggs outside the environment of their mothers' nests.

chicken houses
Structures constructed for or used to house domesic chickens being raised for meat or to lay eggs. Traditionally the term refers to relatively small structures with areas for the chickens to sit on nests, eat, and drink, and having open access to a yard. The term may also be used to refer to large buildings operated by commercial enterprises, having large numbers of cages or other small enclosures that are each used confine one or two animals for long periods of time or their entire life.

children's gardens
Gardens designed for children, to teach them about ecology.

children's hospitals
Hospitals specializing in the treatment of diseases and injuries of children.

children's libraries (buildings)
Buildings housing collections of books, furniture, and other facilities that are specifically geared towards the needs of children.

children's libraries (institutions)
Libraries containing collections specifically geared towards the needs of children.

children's museums (buildings)
Buildings housing museums with exhibits aimed at an audience of children and their education, for example, with texts written at a child's level of understanding and hands-on exhibits intended to maintain a child's interest.

children's playhouses
Small houselike structures designed for children to play in.

children's villages
Residential treatment centers, often in a rural setting, which provide medical and counseling services for children with emotional problems.

children's zoos
Zoos designed for the education and enjoyment of children and young adults, often including a petting zoo, animal shows, and exhibits of baby animals.

chimney stacks
Chimneys containing a number of flues, especially when rising as shafts above a roof.

chimneys (architectural elements)
Vertical noncombustible structures containing flues for drawing off into the outside air products of combustion from, for example, stoves, fireplaces, and furnaces.

china cabinets
Cabinets, often with glass fronts and sides, used to hold and display china.

Chinese sections of large towns or cities, especially sea ports.

Chinese festivals
Festivals celebrated in China and other Asian countries, and elsewhere by people of Asian ethnicity or descent.

Chinese gardens
Gardens laid out to imitate those in China, often including Chinese-style structures; especially popular in Europe during the 18th century.

choir lofts
Galleries appropriated to a choir.

choirs (church spaces)
Refers to spaces in Christian churches, generally between the altar area or sanctuary and the nave, reserved for choristers. For spaces containing the altar area and the choir, when present, use "chancels." For elevated platforms from which a choir, often composed of laity, sings, use "choir lofts."

church buildings by function
No description is available for this term.

church camps
Camps run by a particular religious group and focusing on activities that promote the beliefs of the religion; church camps often cater to children, but may also include adults. The term is often distinguished from "religious camps," which often refers specifically to 19th-century camps for revival meetings on the American frontier.

church historians
Those who study the history of Christian Churches and their sects and branches.

church towers
Towers attached to churches.

churches (buildings)
Buildings for public Christian worship that are distinguished historically from chapels and oratories, which are buildings that are in some respect private, or not public in the widest sense. Church architecture generally somewhat follows standard models, which vary depending upon the date, location, and characteristics of the congregation.

Yards which belong to churches and are used as places for burial.

Inclined or vertical troughs or shafts, for conveying materials of any kind to a lower level.

cigar stores
Stores specializing in the sale of cigars and related tobacco products and smoking accessories.

circulation spaces
Open spaces in rooms that allow for unencumbered movement within them. Circulation spaces can occupy a percentage of a room, or be constructed for the singular purpose of allowing free circulation. For outdoor pedestrian circulation pathways see terms collocated under "walkways".

circuses (performances)
Performances that include trained animal acts or exhibitions of human skill and daring, or both. Circuses usually include a trained, traveling company or troupe of performers, various animals, and their equipage. The term "circus" refers to the circular arena surrounded by tiers of seats below which the performance occurs in a circular area called the "ring."

circuses (Roman arenas)
Oblong ancient Roman enclosures that are curved at one end, with tiered seating on three sides, and built for chariot and horse racing. Meaning overlaps with similar structures in Greek cities of the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine eras, "hippodromes (Greek sports buildings)." For sports structures used for horse racing in more modern contexts, use "horse racetracks."

cisterns (plumbing components)
Artificial reservoirs for the storage of water, typically water-tight tanks in a high part of a building or underground for the capture of rainwater or water from another source.

city blocks
Pieces of land within urban areas usually bounded on all sides by streets or other transportation routes, natural physical barriers, or public open space and not traversed by through streets.

city halls
Refers to the chief public administration buildings of a city, generally housing the mayor's office and legislative chambers.

civic centers
Areas within a city where the principal governmental and cultural buildings are grouped; may also denote building complexes or individual buildings housing such a range of functions, especially when the construction was financed by municipal funds.

classical orders
A set of orders of architecture, typically reserved for the five orders of architecture known in ancient Greece and Rome, usually including Ionic, Doric, Corinthian, Composite, and Tuscan.

Rooms devoted to formal instruction in schools.

Upper zones of walls rising above adjacent roofs and pierced by windows so as to admit light to a high central room or space flanked by lower rooms or spaces.

cliff dwellings
Homes built on ledges or dug into the rock in the vertical sides of mesas, bluffs, or cliffs. Examples are those of the ancient American Southwest.

High, steep ledges of rock.

climbing ropes
Special ropes, usually of four strands of selected manilla long fiber and about 1 1/2 inches in diameter, designed for gymnastic climbing or as practice for mountain climbing.

climbing walls
Artificial surfaces designed to facilitate practicing rock climbing techniques, providing the climber with varying surface textures, grips, scale, and inclination.

clinics (buildings, medical)
Buildings that house healthcare facilities for outpatient care, often where patients receive treatment at reduced fees. The term also refers to facilities or hospital departments devoted to a particular group of diseases, such as a psychiatric clinic, neurology clinic, or surgery clinic, whether or not fees are reduced.

clinics (institutions, medical)
Healthcare institutions for outpatient care, often where patients receive treatment, often at reduced fees. The term also refers to hospital departments devoted to a particular group of diseases, such as a psychiatric clinic, neurology clinic, or surgery clinic, whether or not fees are reduced.

Rooms in which cloaks, coats, hats, or other outerwear garments may be placed, usually located near the entrance of a place of assembly and intended for short-term placement of the garments. The term may also refer to a space located in railway-stations, other transportation stations, or hotel, where luggage of any description is temporarily taken charge of.

clock towers (towers)
Towers having the primary function to contain and prominently display a clock or clocks.

cloister gardens
No description is available for this term.

cloister garths
Open courtyards surrounded by walkways, especially in a group of buildings of a monastery or college.

Enclosed spaces composed of a garth and surrounding walkways, which are generally arcaded on the courtyard side and walled on the other; usually found in Christian religious building complexes. Use for such features in secular buildings only when closely resembling the prototype.

closed stacks
Areas where library and archival materials are housed, which are not open to users.