SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here.

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trinity houses
Small 18th- and 19th-century Philadelphia row houses generally comprised of one room per floor for three floors.

triumphal arches (memorial arches)
Monumental structures containing at least one arched passageway and erected to honor an important person or to commemorate a significant event, particularly a victory in war. The basic form consisted of two piers connected by an arch, over which was placed a superstructure that served as a base for statues and bore commemorative inscriptions. Triumphal arches generally spanned a roadway used for triumphal processions. They are associated with ancient Roman architecture, however, they possibly developed elsewhere or from the Porta Triumphalis, which was a gate in Rome through which the victorious Roman army had to pass before entering the sacred city territory of Rome. "Arco onorario destinato a commemorare una vittoria militare. Nelle basiliche cristiane indica l'arco che divide la navata dal transetto o dal presbiterio."

trophies (war monuments)
Monuments erected as permanent reminders of military victories, usually containing images of the spoils of battle and often set up in the land of the vanquished. The design of these monuments was derived from the piles of arms and armor collected and displayed after Greek and Roman military victories. For the actual objects taken as spoils in war or hunting, or awarded as prizes for victory in contests, use "trophies (objects)."

truck routes
Roads or systems of roads reserved for trucks and other large vehicles; intended to avoid interference to and from local traffic and to improve road safety.

truck stops
Establishments, typically found in the United States, which provide refreshment, fuel, and services for truck-drivers and their vehichles.

truss arch bridges
Bridges having load-bearing superstructures employing both trusses and arches.

truss bridges
Bridges that employ trusses, which are structural members comprising straight pieces of metal or timber forming a series of triangles lying in a single plane, thus making the structure unlikely to be distorted by stress. Wooden truss bridges, in the form of covered bridges, were common in the United States from the 1870s to the 1930s; carefully fitted timbers were combined with iron rods for tension. Later, railroad bridges and other bridges were constructed of cast iron and wrought iron, which were eventually succeeded by steel in truss bridges.

truss bridges
Bridges that employ trusses, which are structural members comprising straight pieces of metal or timber forming a series of triangles lying in a single plane, thus making the structure unlikely to be distorted by stress. Wooden truss bridges, in the form of covered bridges, were common in the United States from the 1870s to the 1930s; carefully fitted timbers were combined with iron rods for tension. Later, railroad bridges and other bridges were constructed of cast iron and wrought iron, which were eventually succeeded by steel in truss bridges.

trusses (structural elements)
In engineering, structural members such as beams, bars, or rods, usually fabricated from straight pieces of metal or timber, that form a series of triangles lying in a single plane; based on the principle that a triangle cannot be easily distorted by stress. Trusses were probably first used in primitive lake dwellings during the early Bronze Age, about 2500 BCE. The first trusses were built of timber. The Greeks used trusses extensively in roofing; trusses were used for various construction purposes in the European Middle Ages. A major impetus to truss design came in the development of covered bridges in the United States in the early 19th century. Cast iron and wrought iron were succeeded by steel for railroad truss bridges. Trusses are also used extensively in machinery, such as cranes.

tundras
Areas of treeless, rolling terrain found in polar or alpine regions, typically covered with bare ground, rock, or such vegetation as mosses, lichens, and small shrubs.

tunnels
Subterranean passages, particularly roadways excavated under ground, under a hill or mountain, or beneath the bed of a river to allow passage of vehicles, trains, pedestrians, or animals.

Turkish baths
Buildings in which bathers pass through a succession of steam rooms of increasing temperature followed by spaces for rubdowns and massages. For Islamic public baths, use "hammams."

turnpikes
Refers either to high-speed multilane highways or 18th- and 19th-century thoroughfares along which tolls are collected from users; can be expressways or throughways.

turntables (rail transportation structure)
In the context of railroads, revolving platforms that turn on a central pivot laid with rails connected to adjacent tracks; used for turning railway vehicles.

turrets (theater components)
Refers to the upper parts of tiring houses in Elizabethan theaters, possibly used as music galleries and for sound effects.

turrets (towers)
Small towers, especially when corbelled out from a corner.

underground shopping centers
Shopping centers located underground, typically in an urban environment and often in association with underground subway stations or underground pedestrian passages between and under streets.

underground structures
Structures constructed wholly or mostly beneath the surface of the ground.

underpasses
Grade separations where clearance to traffic on the upper level is obtained by depressing partially or completely the grade of the lower level.

union halls
Building used for union gatherings.

union stations
Railroad stations or terminals at which tracks and facilities are shared by two or more railway companies, allowing passengers and freight to connect conveniently between them.

universities (buildings)
Buildings or groups of buildings that house degree-granting institutions which may typically include liberal arts undergraduate colleges, graduate schools, and undergraduate or graduate professional schools.

universities (institutions)
Degree-granting institutions that may include liberal arts undergraduate colleges, graduate schools, and undergraduate or graduate professional schools.

university and college buildings
Buildings housing universities or colleges.

university cities
Communities, relatively large in size, that are the location of a university, which is a type of degree-granting institution.

urban areas
Areas within city limits or closely linked to them by common use of public utilities or services.

urban blight
Refers to the condition of urban areas characterized by general deterioration in the quality of existing buildings and infrastructural systems, often caused by adverse economic, environmental, or zoning forces.

urban forests
Forests comprised of the aggregate of all trees and associated vegatation found in and around a given urban area, including both individual street and park trees, and groupings of trees, whether on public lands such as greenways, or on private property.

urban landscapes
Landscapes with densely built-up districts and settlement areas and with distinctive skylines.

urban parks
Small parks serving central business districts, highly urban areas (including new towns), or commercial districts.

urban planning
Long term planning for additions and improvements to the spatial organization and content of urban areas. It concerns planning for interaction between people, businesses, government, transportation infrastructure, mass transit, water and power infrastructure, pollution, waste management, and other broad and long term interests in an urban setting. For the overall management of urban areas, encompassing the setting of objectives for urban life, the establishment of policies, and the planning, development, operation, and maintenance of the urban environment and services, use "urban management." For the field concerned with designing the specific appearance and function of cities, use “urban design.”

urban renewal
Activity of clearing, rebuilding, restoring, or refurbishing urban areas.

urban subdivisions
Generic designation for divisions of an urban area.

urban transportation
Generally, transportation in urban areas, whether by transit systems or private means.

urban universities (buildings)
Buildings that house universities located in and serving urban communities, although not necessarily maintained by municipalities.

urban villages
Mixed-use communities designed to combine residential sections in close proximity to employment, retail, and entertainment facilities linked by pedestrian-oriented thoroughfares; often located in suburban contexts.

Usonian houses
Term applied to a group of Frank Lloyd Wright's small, single-family houses constructed during the late 1930s and early 1940s and generally characterized by low cost, natural materials, open planning, and a close relationship between the building and the site and climate. The term was coined by the architect.

utility rooms
Rooms designed or used to house heating, laundry, or general maintenance equipment.

utopian cities
No description is available for this term.

utopias
Places of ideal perfection, especially with regard to laws, government, and social conditions.

vacant lots
A subdivided residential, governmental, institutional, or commercial lot which contains no structures of a permanent or temporary nature.

vacation houses
Houses that are not the primary residence of the occupants, but are occupied primarily seasonally during vacations or otherwise for recreation.

variety stores
Stores in which small, inexpensive goods of various kinds are sold.

vaults (strong rooms)
Rooms for the safekeeping of valuables, commonly built of steel.

vaults (tomb spaces)
Spaces or containers for a casket in a burial site.

vegetable gardens
Gardens in which primarily vegetables are grown; normally of modest size, although may be extensive.

vegetation
Plants collectively, usually referring to plants or vegetal growths in a defined area. For the kingdom of plants, use "Plantae (kingdom)."

vernacular architecture
Architecture built of local materials to suit particular local needs, usually of unknown authorship and making little reference to the chief styles or theories of architecture.

vest-pocket parks
Very small city parks, directly adjacent to and usually between buildings in a densely built area.

vestibules
Spaces between the outer and inner doors to buildings, or for sheltered spaces, recessed in the mass of the building, just outside the outer doors. For spaces just inside the outer door but not separated from the building interior by any barrier such as a door, use "entrance halls."

veterans hospitals
Hospitals specializing in the treatment of men and women who have served in military service.

veterinary hospitals
Hospitals intended for the care and tretment of animals.

veterinary laboratories
Laboratories where tests and studies are done in the area of veterinary medicine or on specimens from animal patients at veterinary facilities.

viaducts
Bridges, usually resting on a series of arches, carrying roadways or railways over low-lying areas.

vicarages
Residences provided for clergymen, usually vicars.

video arcades
Amusement arcades that contain predominantly video games.

villages
Distinctions among villages, towns, and cities are relative and vary according to their individual regional contexts. Villages generally designate units of compact settlement, varying in size but usually larger than hamlets and smaller than towns and distinguished from the surrounding rural territory.

villas
Used since the Roman period to designate country houses, generally of some pretension, and often including their outbuildings and gardens.

vineyards
Tracts of land on which grapevines are cultivated; plantations of vines.

visitors' centers
Structures providing specific information about specific localities, buildings, or exhibitions through the display of printed or other material, or the sale or free distribution of literature.

vocational schools (buildings)
Buildings that house schools offering instruction in one or more skilled or semiskilled trades or occupations. For educational facilities traditionally training technicians in business, industry, and commerce, usually for an immediate local area, use "polytechnics."

wainscoting
Refers to panels of oak or other wood that is used to line the walls of a room. It often refers specifically to the decorative or protective facings applied to the lower portion of an interior partition or wall, whether of wood or another material. The term originally referred to a superior quality of oak from Russia, Germany, and Holland, that was used primarily for fine panel-work.

waiting rooms
Rooms furnished for the use of persons waiting, as in railroad stations or medical offices.

walkways
Outdoor pedestrian pathways, and similar bicycle or horseback riding paths, paved or unpaved, developed as a regular means of access from one point to another within a landscape. For indoor means of access see descriptors collocated under "circulation spaces."

wall towers
Towers incorporated into a protective wall, such as the wall around a city or castle.

walled gardens
Gardens, contained within walls, typically attached to a private residence.

walls
Vertical architectural members used to define and divide spaces. Vertical architectural members used to define and divide spaces.

war cemeteries
Refers to burial sites specifically for victims of a battle.

war memorials
Buildings or monuments commemorating those killed in war, often specifically for those from the local area and from one particular war, and frequently inscribed with the names of the fallen.

warehouses
Structures designed or used for the storage of commodities or merchandise.

Warren trusses
Trusses with parallel chords between which the braces and ties are set at the same angle so as to form a series of isoceles triangles, the diagonals of which are alternately placed either in tension or compression.

washhouses (outbuildings)
Outbuilding where washing is done.

wasteweirs (weirs)
Walls or dams to divert the flow of runoff or other superfluous water.

watchtowers
Any built structure used as a lookout station that affords observation of a surrounding area.

water activities
Describes activities that occur in relation to a body of water.

water distribution structures
Irrigation canals, pipes, pumps, and other structures and equipment for distributing water.

water features (landscaping)
Designates passive reflective or dynamic elements in the cultural landscape that incorporate water as the primary design feature; for naturally occurring areas of water use the descriptors under "bodies of water."

water gardens
Gardens incorporating fountains and pools in which aquatic and other water-loving plants are grown.

water mills
Refers to a device utilizing a water wheel or otherwise operated by water with the purpose of running a mill to grind grain or to produce or process a product. It may also typically refers to the building or structure housing or supporting the device.

water slides
Descending troughs partially filled with constantly moving water through which people may ride or slide, usually terminating in a pool of water.

water stairs (landscaped-site elements)
Landscape features that have water cascading or spilling down a stepped incline, usually in controlled channels; found in Islamic and 16th-century and later Italian formal gardens.

water storage tanks
Holding containers utilized to store water in private water supply systems.

water tables
Courses of stone projecting beyond the face of a wall to guide water away from the face of the wall. Courses of stone projecting beyond the face of a wall to guide water away from the face of the wall.

water tanks
Storage containers for water, ranging from large concrete tanks for storing drinking water to small porcelain tanks for storing water to flush a toilet.

water towers
Elevated reservoirs, usually in the shape of towers, into which water is pumped to maintain desired pressure throughout a distribution system.

water treatment plants
Facilities of the public water system designed to purify by altering the physical, chemical, biological, or radiological quality of the water or to remove any contaminants.

water wells
Wells sunk to extract water from a zone of saturation.

watercraft
Vessels that can float and are constructed for travel or transport on the water, such as a boat, ship, or raft.

waterfalls (natural bodies of water)
Perpendicular or very steep descents of the water of a stream. May be used for artificial waterfalls only if highly naturalistic in form and context; otherwise prefer "cascades" or "fountains."

waterfront spaces
Open water spaces located along a waterfront.

waterfronts
Spaces, land, or part of a city or town on the edge of body of water.

watersheds (drainage divides)
Areas defined by a line or narrow tract of land that separates the waters flowing into different rivers, river basins, or seas. For the areas drained by a river system, use "drainage basins."

waterways
Bodies of water serving as ways or routes for travel or transportation.

waterworks
The system of buildings, hydraulic structures, machinery, and other equipment by which a water supply is obtained, conveyed, and distributed to consumers in cities, towns, or neighborhoods.

wave pools
No description is available for this term.

weapons production centers
Communities of any size that have the production of weapons as a major industry.

weaving sheds
Buildings housing the looms for weaving.

weigh stations
Building or other facilities serving as a checkpoint along a roadway for the inspection of vehicular weights, usually limited to checking trucks.

weirs
Barriers or dams across waterways to regulate water level or divert or measure water flow, for example, to drive a mill wheel or as constructed on a canal or navigable river to retain the water and prevent overflow.

welfare buildings
Buildings containing facilities for record keeping or distribution of care, advice, or publications having to do with the general health and welfare of humans or animals.

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