Marshall County, named for Chief Justice John Marshall, was formed in 1835 from the southern portion of Ohio County. Five years later, its population was 6,937, of whom 46 were slaves and 37 freedmen. For the most part, twentieth-century growth was slow and steady. The 1980 population of 41,608 was the largest yet recorded. In 2000, the population stood at 35,519. Marshall County's topography is singularly hilly. Manufacturing, centered in the Ohio River valley, and coal mining are the basis of the economy.
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