SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here.

Click on the icon to view the definition of the selected term.

earth dams
Dams using earth or rock as fill, utilizing natually available materials with minimum processing to construct embankments.

earth lodges
Designates certain Native North American dwellings framed by heavy timbers and covered with earth or sod and a dome-shaped arrangement of branches.

earth sheltered buildings
Structures that are surrounded by earth on all sides or on all sides except overhead, typically creating an almost invisible profile on the landscape and a green ideal in the savings of fuel and insulating materials. Structures that are surrounded by earth on all sides or on all sides except overhead, typically creating an almost invisible profile on the landscape and a green ideal in the savings of fuel and insulating materials.

earthen architecture
Buildings and other architectural structures constructed wholly or primarily of earth. For engineering works, such as trenches, created in the earth, use "earthworks (engineering works)." For structures built on a hillside rather than into it, use "hillside architecture." For structures built under the surface of the ground, but not made primarily of earth, use "underground structures."

earthworks (engineering works)
Formations made of earth, resulting from the grading, trenching, or embanking of earth for utilitarian or cermonial purposes. Examples include Medieval fortifications and ancient ceremonial sites in Britain and Europe. For earth constructions having more of an artistic, rather than functional, purpose, use "earthworks (sculpture)." For works considered architecture rather than engineering works, prefer "earthen architecture."

earthworks (sculpture)
Artist works that manipulate natural earth and stone, altering the terrain of the land itself for artistic purposes. For large-scale outdoor works that otherwise exploit or incorporate aspects of their sites, use the more general term "environmental art." For the results of grading, trenching, or embanking earth, for utilitarian purposes, use "earthworks (engineering works)."

eave components
Parts or components of eaves.

education
Discipline that concerns the entire process of imparting knowledge, attitudes, skills, or socially valued qualities of character or behavior. For the specific activities involved in deliberately conveying knowledge, skills, or social values to others, use "educating."

educational centers (buildings)
Buildings, part of a building, or complex in which training or education takes place. It is not necessarily a formal school.

educational complexes
Groupings of educational buildings and other facilities; if possible, use a more specific term.

Effigy Mound (regional style)
No description is available for this term.

effigy mounds (monuments)
Large earthworks formed in the likeness of birds and animals.

electric substations
Bulk delivery points for electrical power, from which it is distributed to consumers.

elementary schools (buildings)
Buildings that house schools providing the first stage of compulsory education, generally extending from grade 1 through grades 6 or 8 and teaching the rudiments of learning; may house a kindergarten.

elephant houses
No description is available for this term.

elevated roads
Roadways raised about ground level by being supported on banks of earth, arches, pillars, or other structural elements.

elevators
Cars, cages, or platforms and associated machinery for the vertical conveying of goods or people to and from different levels.

ells (building divisions)
Extensions that are at right angles to the length of buildings.

embankments
Long ridges of earth, rocks, or gravel primarily constructed to carry a roadway; if built to retain water, use "levees" or "dikes."

embassies
Refers to the official headquarters of foreign ministers called ambassadors appointed to transact international business with a foreign government; when such headquarters are for ministers appointed primarily to oversee and protect the home country's economic interests in a host country, see "consulates." For the official residences of foreign ministers in general, see "legations."

emergency medical centers
Buildings, groups of buildings, or relatively large areas within a building specializing in the prompt treatment of acute illness, trauma, or other medical emergencies, often having treatments for a broad range of illnesses and injuries. The term is distinguished from "emergency rooms," which tend to be smaller facilities or rooms attached to a general hospital.

emergency rooms
Hospital areas equipped and staffed for the prompt treatment of acute illness, trauma, or other medical emergencies.

employees' buildings
Buildings or parts of buildings housing facilities for use by the employees for activities not strictly required for the job, such as a break room, meeting rooms, lockers, human resources offices, etc.

endangered places
Refers to open spaces, buildings, or other structures that are of historic or environmental significance and threatened with development or demolition.

energy efficient buildings
Buildings that employ methods and systems aimed at making optimal use of electricity and other resources, including using the largest possible proportion of regional resources and materials, in contrast to the conventional, inefficient practice of providing for only minimal efficiency in use of energy and drawing materials and energy from distant, centralized sources.

English barns
Rectangular, gable-roofed barns divided on the interior into three roughly equal bays arranged widthwise rather than lengthwise, the center bay comprising a passageway entered from the long sides.

English basements
Floor of a building that is partially both below and above ground level, and lacking an entrance at that level.

English hoods
Headdresses, usually of black fabric, characterized by a peak that projects above the forehead and is maintained by wires or a stiffened decorated framework; usually with embroidered strips that frame the face and either a fall of fabric that continues beyond the shoulders or two long pendant flaps that are sometimes pinned up at the sides; worn with an undercap by women from the late 15th to the mid-16th century.

entertainment buildings
Distinguished from "recreation buildings" by more narrowly designating buildings with devices or equipment for amusement or diversion and not active sports, nor for which membership is required.

entertainment centers (inhabited places)
Communities of any size that have entertainment as a major industry.

entrance halls
Passages or rooms just inside the entrance of a residence, but sometimes with a vestibule between it and the outdoors. Prefer "lobbies" for such spaces in larger public buildings.

entrances
Refers to points or places of entering.

environmental art
Contemporary works of art, usually outdoors and on a grand scale, that surround or involve the participation of the viewer and that especially exploit or incorporate aspects of their sites. For such works that specifically manipulate the land itself, use "earthworks (sculpture)." For indoor installations that create surroundings that can be entered by the viewer, use "environments (sculpture)." For sculpture that is designed to be placed outdoors but is not especially site-specific, use "outdoor sculpture." For art that utilizes natural physical forces, biological organisms and processes, and performance to illustrate, question, and explain ecological and environmental issues, use "ecological art."

environmental laboratories
Laboratories where issues regarding the natural environment are studied and tested, including issues surrounding effective resource use, resource conservation, and environmental protection.

environmentally sensitive areas
Areas having beneficial qualities to the surrounding environment or considered as natural assets to their region, typically including wetlands, flood plains, critical habitats of endangered species, and recharge zones of sole-source bodies of water.

equestrian centers
Facilities offering equestrian training, board, and care, typically comprising race tracks, barns, stables, and veterinary hospitals. For schools where equitation is taught, use "riding schools."

escarpments (landforms)
Steep slopes in front of fortifications. Also, long, steep cliffs or slopes resulting from erosion, and which separate two comparatively level surfaces.

estates (commercial agricultural holding)
Large, usually commercialized, agricultural landholdings with associated buildings and other facilities. The term is often used for former European colonial land holdings, similar to plantations. For landholdings that are intended primarily or in large part as the residence of the private owner, even if there are crops and tenant farmers, use "estates (residential complexes)." Meaning and usage of "estates" overlap with "plantations," although plantations are usually larger enterprises than agricultural estates.

estates (residential complexes)
Landed properties, usually of considerable extent, which typically have a grand house and outbuildings, and which may, but not necessarily must, have certain land on which a crop is cultivated; may have tenants who operate the agricultural lands. For commercial agricultural lands, particularly those similar to plantations and located in European colonial areas, use "estates (commercial agricultural holdings)."

estuaries
Category of marine body of water comprising areas where freshwater streams or rivers merge with the ocean. This mixing of waters with such different salt concentrations creates a very interesting and unique ecosystem. An estuary is usually a funnel-shaped stream mouth or embayment where fresh water mixes with sea water under tidal influences.

excavations (earthworks)
Cavities in the earth resulting from removal of soil and rock for purposes of building construction or archaeology.

excavations (sites)
Locations where there is digging or other uncovering of evidence of ancient life, including artifacts of human activity, fossils, frozen remains, or other preserved evidence.

exchanges (financial institutions)
In modern usage, buildings that house banks that specialize in the exchange of stocks and securities. The term historically refers to buildings in which the merchants of a town assemble for the transaction of business.

exhibition buildings
Buildings built or used exculsively or primarily for exhibitions, which are organized displays of works of art or other objects of human making. Exhibition buildings may be permanent facilities or temporary structures, as at a world's fair.

experiment stations
Buildings or outdoor facilities where research and experiments are carried out in a specific field, such as agriculture or mining, where practical applications are tested, and from where the results are disseminated. Distinct from "research stations" which are primarily for the observation of natural phenomena.

expressways
Divided multilane highways with a minimum of traffic signals where grades are separated at important intersections, although there may be some grade crossings; can be freeways or turnpikes.

eyebrow dormers
Low dormers in a roof over which the roof is carried in a continuous curve. Low dormers in a roof over which the roof is carried in a continuous curve.

, ,