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John England House and Mill

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1747, with additions. 81 Red Mill Rd. at White Clay Creek, south of Kirkwood Hwy.
  • (Photograph by Matthew Aungst)
  • John England House and Mill (HABS)

John England immigrated from Staffordshire to operate Principio Furnace, Maryland, and three years later, in 1726, bought 400 acres on White Clay Creek. The brick house erected by his brother and heir, Joseph, bears a datestone of 1747. Historian Harold D. Eberlein says the brick wing at right was already standing, though it looks later; it shows traces of a Dutch oven, which connected to the huge fireplace inside. The section of 1747 has glazed-header brick-work with a scattering of putlog holes (holes where bricks were omitted so scaffolding could be inserted for construction or repair); pent eaves; and a wavy diaper pattern in one gable, somewhat recalling that of Wilmington's Presbyterian Church (WL58) of the same decade. The mill stands on massive stone foundations, one stone supposedly inscribed “I E 1789,” and has changed little since visited by HABS in 1937, at which time it was still grinding feed. It retains elements of its sideshot water turbine, which replaced the original undershot wheel (metal turbines were more efficient than the larger old wooden wheels).

Writing Credits

W. Barksdale Maynard


What's Nearby


W. Barksdale Maynard, "John England House and Mill", [Newark, Delaware], SAH Archipedia, eds. Gabrielle Esperdy and Karen Kingsley, Charlottesville: UVaP, 2012—,

Print Source

Cover: Buildings of Delaware

Buildings of Delaware, W. Barksdale Maynard. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008, 176-177.

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