SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here.

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coastal fortifications
Fortifications erected along seacoasts, as to prevent the passage of ships or to protect the land from attack.

coastal settlements
Human settlements, ancient or modern, that exist along a coastline.

coastguard stations
Buildings and other facilities located beside or near the water for the use of the coastguard, a military service responsible for the safety of maritime traffic in coastal waters.

coastlines
Generally used either for the lines forming boundaries between land and sea or specifically for the lines reached by the highest storm waves or the high-water marks of median tides; for strips of land bordering any large bodies of water, use "shores (landforms)."

cockpits (recreation spaces)
Pits or enclosed areas designed for cockfighting.

cocktail lounges
Public rooms, as in hotels, clubs, or restaurants, where cocktails and other drinks are served.

coffee shops
Small, usually inexpensive, restaurants with a limited menu of light meals served at counters or tables.

coffeehouses
Public places serving coffee and other refreshments and inexpensive foods; often meeting places for lively political discussions, especially popular in Europe from the 17th to the 19th century.

cofferdams
Watertight enclosures from which water is pumped to expose an area in order to permit construction or repairs.

coffered ceilings
Ceilings treated with coffers. Ceilings treated with coffers.

coke ovens
Closed refractory chambers in which coal is converted to coke by carbonization.

cold storage rooms
Rooms kept at low temperatures for the storage of perishable items, such as food, or other items prone to deterioration or pests, such as film or archival materials.

collective settlements
Communities occupied and run by a group of people working in cooperation, often employed in farming, making crafts, etc.

colleges (buildings)
Buildings or groups of buildings that house institutions of higher learning that provide general or liberal arts education leading to bachelor's degrees; may be independent or parts of universities.

colleges (institutions)
Institutions of higher learning that provide general or liberal arts education leading to bachelor's degrees; may be independent or parts of universities.

collegiate churches
Churches, other than cathedrals, endowed for a chapter of canons, or, as in the United States and Scotland, churches joined together and served by a joint pastorate.

colonial settlements
Inhabited places established in areas that are newly colonized or under the rule of a colonial power.

colonnades
Rows of columns supporting an entablature and often one side of a roof. Includes spaces behind such a feature when they are long and used for circulation.

colossi
Sculptured figures of extraordinarily large size.

columns (architectural elements)
In the discipline of architecture, refers to cylindrical or slightly tapering, vertical members made to either give support or to appear to give support. They usually comprise three sections: base, capital, and shaft. The term also refers to all uprights in steel frame or concrete frame structures. Columns may occasionally stand alone as a monument, for example in Trajan's Column in Rome or Nelson's Column in London. Columns may be used as decorative elements on furniture. For square or rectangular members, either in masonry construction or classically treated, and for massive uprights in Medieval architecture, see "piers (supporting elements)"; for wooden square uprights, see "posts." In the discipline of architecture, refers to cylindrical or slightly tapering, vertical members made to either give support or to appear to give support. They usually comprise three sections: base, capital, and shaft. The term also refers to all uprights in steel frame or concrete frame structures. Columns may occasionally stand alone as a monument, for example in Trajan's Column in Rome or Nelson's Column in London. Columns may be used as decorative elements on furniture. For square or rectangular members, either in masonry construction or classically treated, and for massive uprights in Medieval architecture, see "piers (supporting elements)"; for wooden square uprights, see "posts."

comfort stations
Buildings with toilets and lavatory facilities for public use.

commemorative sculpture
Sculpture that serves as a memorial to beings or events, not necessarily in the context of gravesites.

commercial buildings
Use broadly to refer to buildings associated with any aspect of the various activities and business relationships of industry and trade; when referring to structures associated with the purchase, sale, or exchange of goods in business, use "mercantile buildings."

commercial centers (inhabited places)
Inhabited places such as cities, towns, etc. where a primary activity is business and trade.

commercial complexes
Buildings or complexes constructed for or serving businesses, merchants, and other commercial purposes.

commercial strips
Designates groups of mostly commercial enterprises, usually a mix of fast-food restaurants, motels, and service stations, among others, arranged directly alongside well-traveled roads, providing nearly unlimited roadway access, and designed to attract the attention of motorists.

commissaries (store and eating spaces)
Stores selling food, equipment, and other merchandise, and often serving light meals, for people employed in a particular kind of work, such as at a film studio or military installation.

commodity exchanges
Structures designed for or containing organized markets where future delivery contracts for graded commodities (as grains, cotton, sugar, coffee, wool) are bought and sold.

common land (cultural landscape)
Land that is owned collectively, by a government, or by one person, but over which certain traditional rights are in place for certain other people or the general public, for example grazing rights.

common rooms
Public lounges or similar rooms in such places as hotels and colleges.

commons (open spaces)
Expanses of land, paved or green, owned by the community as a whole.

communal housing
Housing in which multiple individuals, couples, or nuclear families have some shared facilities (for example, laundry facilities or gardening services) but maintain primarily separate living spaces that have been constructed in quantity, either as multiple dwellings under one roof (such as in an apartment house) or in single units (such as a retirement community). When communal housing comprises separate buildings, the buildings typically have a uniform or coordinated appearance.

communes (social)
Self-supporting and self-governing communities comprised of small groups of people living together with minimal interference from outsiders.

communications buildings
Buildings designed or used for the equipment and personnel necessary for communications, such as telephone service.

communities (inhabited places)
Groups or bodies of people who live in the same place and are usually united by a common way of life, cultural or ethnic identity, or other factors. Usually reserved for smaller groups that have not organized into a village or town.

community centers
Buildings where members of a community are able to gather for social or cultural activities.

community colleges (buildings)
Buildings that house publicly funded higher education colleges, typically without residential facilities, serving the educational needs of a specific community. The term may also refer to buildings housing secondary schools or sixth-form colleges that make the spaces available to the local community out of school hours for educational and recreational purposes; typically British usage.

community gardens
Areas of green space within communities or neighborhoods available for cultivation, usually by residents, and managed by local committees.

community museums (buildings)
Buildings or spaces for museums that are founded, run or patronized by local communities, which serve the aspirations and educational needs of the community.

community organizations
Organizations which contribute in varying degrees to a community. Community organizations may be non-profit, private-sector, or private for-profit organizations. They may have a broad constituency, such as a neighborhood council, or a more targeted constituency, such as a tenant's association. Organizations which contribute in varying degrees to a community. Community organizations may be non-profit, private-sector, or private for-profit organizations. They may have a broad constituency, such as a neighborhood council, or a more targeted constituency, such as a tenant's association.

community parks
Parks, usually over 20 acres in extent, offering a wider range of activities and considerably more open space than "neighborhood parks."

community schools (buildings)
Buildings that house schools whose facilities and programs are closely connected with the life and needs of, and may be shared by, the whole community.

community schools (institutions)
Educational institutions having facilities and programs that are closely connected with the life and needs of, and may be shared by, the whole community.

company museums (buildings)
Buildings or spaces for museums that are administered by a company, often highlighting the history or products of the company.

company stores
Retail stores associated with and usually owned and operated by a company for the convenience of employees, who are often required to shop there.

company towns
Settlements whose inhabitants depend solely or chiefly on a single employer who also owns a substantial portion of the settlement's real estate and housing.

complexes (buildings and sites)
Aggregations of buildings, other structures, and/or open spaces, often multifunctional, and more extensive than single built works, usually shaped over a longer period of time by more participants.

compounds (housing complexes)
Housing complexes typically of African origin, comprised of enclosed single or multi-unit family dwellings with communal spaces, adjacent outbuildings or structures.

computer centers
Buildings or parts of buildings that house computer services available to public and private sector customers, possibly including data processing, system design, and web hosting. In modern usage, the term may also refer to retail businesses that sell commercially available hardware and software.

computer labs
No description is available for this term.

concentration camp sites
Locations that were or are the site of a concentration camp internment center.

concentration camps
Designates internment centers established outside ordinary detention systems in which persons are confined for military or political security or for punishment or exploitation; persons are generally imprisoned by decree or military order, often including classes or groups of people without regard for their individual culpability.

concept houses
Model houses designed as experimental projects that explore ideas outside conventional building practices, provoking discussion and change regarding the direction of architecture.

concert halls
Buildings designed for musical performances.

concourses
Open spaces or halls where crowds may gather, especially by chance coming together, as in a large railroad station.

concrete slabs
Flat plates made of concrete and used as structural elements in architecture.

condominiums (built works)
Buildings or complexes of buildings in which each unit is individually owned and ownership of common areas and facilities is shared.

condos
No description is available for this term.

conduits (water distribution structures)
Buildings for water storage and distribution.

confectioneries
Shops where sweet food tiems such as candy, cakes, light pastries, icing, and ice cream are produced or sold.

conference rooms
Rooms designed or adapted for the holding of conferences, with the room usually focused around a large table and chairs.

conical mounds
Artificial earthen mounds, usually burial mounds, that are round and dome-shaped, sometimes with a very narrow, pointed top. Such mounds were especially prevalent with early indigenous inhabitants of midwest North America.

connected barns
Barns connected, often via intermediate outbuildings, to the main farmhouse.

conservatories (building spaces)
In current usage, attached rooms in dwellings or other buildings, having glass wall panels and roofs, often constructed on the back or side of the building and used as a sun room or for growing indoor plants. Usage overlaps with “solariums,” which are typically rooms with large windows. In historical usage, meaning overlaps with "greenhouses," which are typically larger glazed structures devoted to growing and displaying plants.

consolidated schools (buildings)
Buildings that house schools formed by the merging of two or more public schools, usually at the elementary level and often in rural areas.

consulates (diplomatic buildings)
Official headquarters of foreign ministers appointed primarily to oversee and protect the home country's economic interests in a host country; when such headquarters are for ministers called ambassadors appointed to transact matters of international policy and business with a foreign government, use "embassies." For the official residences of foreign ministers in general, use "legations."

continents
Vast landforms that are connected or continuous mainland. Often used when referring to the continents of modern geography, but may also refer to former continents.

continuing education centers (buildings)
Buildings designed to meet the needs of continuing education programs, which focus on postsecondary instruction designed for adults.

continuous bridges
Fixed bridges that extend without hinges or joints across three or more supports, making them capable of resisting bending and shearing forces at all sections throughout their length; continuous bridges are firmly supported in the perpendicular direction by piers and abutments.

control rooms
Rooms containing control equipment, common examples being in broadcasting stations, auditoriums, and theaters.

control towers
Towers or other elevated buildings located at large and medium-sized airports and from which the movement of aircraft and other surrounding traffic is controlled by radio or other means. The control tower structures generally rise high above other buildings at an airport and have windows, tilted outward to avoid glare, circling the entire top floor to allow a clear view for air traffic controllers. They contain necessary equipment, such as radios, radar displays, computer systems for meteorological information and flight data, controllers' headsets, telephone systems, light guns for communication with aircraft via aviation light signals, and wind and pressure gauges.

conurbations
Extensive built-up urban areas that contain some isolated rural areas and are formed by the merging together of cities or towns that formerly were separate. For more extensive or comprehensive clusters of urban areas, use "megalopolises."

convalescent hospitals
Hospitals specializing in the care of people recovering health and strength after illness or injury, typically including provision for full medical care as needed, including professional doctor and nursing staff and diagnostic facilities.

convenience stores
Relatively small retail outlets located primarily near residential areas, maitaining long hours, and typically carrying a limited line of high-turnover packaged food and other products at high prices.

convention centers
Building or complexes designed or adapted for the holding of conferences and conventions.

convents (built complexes)
In common usage, the word "convent" is used for the facilities of a company of women living together in the discipline of a religious order and under one superior. For facilities for a company of males, use "monasteries."

cooperative apartment houses
Apartment houses owned and managed by a corporation in which shares are sold entitling shareholders to occupy individual units in the building.

cooperative housing
Housing owned by a legal entity that permits a group of members to mutually own all, or agreed-upon parts, of the complex and to share mutually in the benefits derived by the group under provisions of the entity's rules.

cooperative stores
Rretail outlets that are owned and operated by consumers for their mutual benefit based on open consumer membership, equal voting among members, limited customer services, and shared profits among members in the form of rebates generally related to the amounts of their purchases. The first consumer cooperative store was established in Rochdale, England, in 1844, and most are still modeled after the original principles.

copper mines
Mines from which the primary extraction is copper, which is an element and reddish metal that is very malleable.

corn palaces
Structures used for seasonal exhibitions having to do with the harvest, often decorated annually with corn, grain, grasses, and the like.

corncribs
Structures for storing corn, usually with slotted boards for ventilation, slanted walls for weather protection, and set on stilts to deter rodents. For similar structures made of small-diameter, rough-hewn logs and used variously for food or equipment storage or animal shelter, use "crib barns."

cornices
The projecting, uppermost features of classical entablatures; use also for similar features crowning a window or wall.

corporate headquarters (built works)
Buildings that contain the centers of strategic control for the entire corporation.

corporate headquarters (inhabited places)
Inhabited place of any size that serve as the headquarters for one or more companies.

corporate plazas
Malls or other arrangements of multiple corporate offices, generally for different companies, designed with pedestrian access between offices, and typically having only one story or a small number of stories.

corrals (animal housing)
Enclosures or pens for large livestock such as horses, or cattle or for wild animals such as elephants.

correctional institutions (buildings)
General term for buildings or groups of buildings in which people accused or convicted of breaking the law may be confined and which may or may not attempt some form of reform or rehabilitative correction of offenders.

corridors
Passages affording access and entrance to the rooms of a building.

cottages
A small house, usually of only one story.

cottages ornés
Certain picturesque, small rustic houses, primarily of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in England, with an asymmetrical plan and wood siding.

cotton gins
Milling machines that separate the seeds, hulls, or foreign material from cotton.

cotton mills
Facilities for processing cotton and creating cotton fabrics, including spinning and weaving machinery. Such mills particularly flourished 1775-1930.

council rings
Low, outdoor stone seats built into the landscapes of gardens or parks and used as places for discussions, drama, dances and other social activities.

counties
The domains or territories of counts. In current usage, usually refers to particular divisions that have been made to an area for administrative, judicial, and political purposes. In Britain, counties are defined by various official methods, and serve as the most important divisional units in the country. In the United States, counties are the political and administrative divisions below the state and above the city; a few U.S. states call such divisions "districts" or "parishes" rather than "counties."

country clubs
Clubs, including the premises and grounds, that are located in or near the countryside rather than in an urban environment, and that are typically characterized by having a restricted membership and facilities for recreation and social intercourse.

country houses
Houses in the country as opposed to an urban area, especially houses that are large, have substantial property, and are used seasonally. For the entire residential estate, including the house, outbuildings, and properties, use "estates (residential complexes)."

county courthouses
Public buildings in the United States that house county-level judicial and administrative facilities; for structures that house similar functions in the United Kingdom, use "county halls."

county halls
Public buildings in the United Kingdom that house various county functions, often comprising a large hall for public meetings and rooms for county courts and administration; for structures housing similar judicial functions in the United States, use "county courthouses."

county museums (buildings)
Buildings or spaces for museums that are administered by the county, an administrative subdivision in the U.S., the U.K., and other nations.

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