SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here.

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flood dams
Dams constructed to store floodwaters temporarily or to supply a surge of water, as for clearing a channel of logs.

flood plains
Regions of land, usually bordering rivers, streams, or lakes, which are subject to excessive rainfall and short-term flooding of flat portions. Regions of land, usually bordering rivers, streams, or lakes, which are subject to excessive rainfall and short-term flooding of flat portions.

flood protection works
Dams, canals, and other structures designed to protect an area from flooding.

florist shops
Shops or stores where flowers and other plants are sold and arranged.

flour mills
Buildings equipped with machinery for grinding grain into flour.

flower gardens
Gardens devoted to the cultivation of flowers.

flumes
Artificial channels or troughs for conducting water, as for transporting logs or providing water power.

flying buttresses
Exterior arched supports transmitting the thrust of a vault or roof from the upper part of a wall outward to a pier or buttress.

follies (architectural)
Structures characterized by a certain excess in terms of eccentricity, cost, or conspicuous inutility; often found in gardens or parks.

food processing plants
Facilities housing operations by which raw foodstuffs are made suitable for consumption, cooking, or storage.

food stands
Designates roadside eateries serving a limited menu at low prices, generally over a counter or through a window; may range from slight architectural structures to freestanding buildings.

food storage structures
Agricultural structures built for storing food.

football fields
Areas used for the game of football (American or gridiron football), in professional play having standard official dimensions of 360 x 160 feet (109.7 x 48.8 m), with a goal line near each end of the field, 100 yards (91.4 m) apart. Areas used for the game of football (American or gridiron football), in professional play having standard official dimensions of 360 x 160 feet (109.7 x 48.8 m), with a goal line near each end of the field, 100 yards (91.4 m) apart.

footbridges
Generally narrow bridges for people and animals to cross on foot.

foothills
Hills or hilly regions at the base of a mountain or mountain range.

footpaths
Narrow paths for pedestrians.

footstones (tombstones)
Refers to the upright stones placed at the foot of graves, that is, over the feet of the interred body, generally shorter in height than the headstone.

forecourts
Courts forming an entrance plaza for a single building or several buildings in a group.

forest reserves
Areas of forest set aside and preserved by the government as a national park or preserve.

forests (cultural landscapes)
Historically, refers to wilderness areas outside the scope of common law but within the legislation of kings and reserved for royal activities; more recently, used to designate extensive wooded areas, whether maintained for the production of timber or unmanaged and preserving a wilderness of dense growth and wild animal habitats. For forests in the context of a plant community rather than as a cultural landscape, use "forests (plant communities)."

forests (plant communities)
Plant communities that are dominated by trees and other woody vegetation. A typical forest is composed of the overstory and the understory; the understory may be subdivided into the lower tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer, moss layer, and soil microbes. Today forests occupy approximately one-third of the earth's land area. For forests in the sense of cultural landscape rather than as a plant community, use "forests (cultural landscapes)."

formal gardens
Gardens whose plantings, walks, pools, fountains, and other features follow a definite, recognizable plan, frequently symmetrical, emphasizing geometrical forms.

fortifications
General term for any works made to oppose a small number of troops against a greater.

fortlets
Small or rudimentary forts, especially in the Roman period.

fortresses
Large, permanent, heavily fortified, defensive military positions, sometimes including a town. Larger and stronger than "forts."

forts
Permanent fortifications for troops, often surrounded by such elements as ditches, parapets, and ramparts and often used as advance posts in or near hostile territory. Smaller and less heavily fortified than "fortresses."

forums (open spaces)
In ancient Roman settlements, open spaces used as marketplaces or general public meeting places and places for judicial and public business. For similar spaces in ancient Greek settlements, use "agoras."

fosses
Refers to wet or dry defensive ditches, often associated with fortifications.

foundries
Buildings or other facilities where in which the founding of metal or glass is carried on, meaning these materials are cast or poured into molds.

fountains
Structures with apertures designed to allow water to spout or flow periodically or continuously, as for amenity or public access.

foursquare houses
Houses generally characterized by a simple, two-story cubical block with a hipped roof, four roughly equal-sized rooms on each floor, and a symmetrical facade; often also having a one-story front porch and one or more dormers; popular in the United States from the 1890s to the early 1930s.

fraternal lodges
Meeting places of branches of fraternal organizations.

fraternities (associations)
Bodies of men associated or formally organized into social, professional, or honorary societies for some common purpose or interest. Often used to refer specifically to social fraternities, which are local or national organizations of male college students and which typically have names composed of two or three Greek letters.

fraternity houses
Dwellings in the United States owned and operated by societies for men for the benefit of their constituents and not open to the general public. They generally serve as a dormitory for fraternity members in a college or university setting.

free schools (buildings)
Buildings that house privately run schools with programs organized as an alternative to traditional public or private schools, usually with a highly flexible or voluntaristic framework.

freeways
Tax-supported, high-speed, multilane highways; can be expressways or throughways.

freight houses
Facilities owned and operated by a railroad for receiving, delivering, or dispatching freight.

freight terminals
A building or group of structures, generally a railroad facility, where freight is handled either using a physical track connection to a trunk line railroad or in an isolated location removed from the trunk line. There may be carfloat service, in which flat-topped barges are used, and freight storage facilities.

French gardens
Formal gardens that emphasize large, open spaces with wall-like hedges, and enclosed garden rooms. French gardens also emphasize elements found in Italian gardens, such as elaborate fountain design.

frescoes (paintings)
Paintings made by the technique of fresco painting, which is a mural painting technique in which permanent pigments, dispersed in water, are painted on freshly laid lime plaster.

Fresnel lenses
Plano-convex lenses thinned by reducing the convex side to a series of concentric rings of approximately the same focal length; when light passes through, it produces a smooth, soft-edged beam of light.

friaries
Buildings and other facilities for friars, a community of men who focus on the sacred ministry of preaching, moving from place to place (in contrast to monks).

friezes (ornamental areas)
Extended horizontal bands decorating architecture, furniture, or other objects and containing figures, scenes, inscriptions, or ornamental motifs. For the specific parts of classical entablatures, see "friezes (entablature components)."

frigates
Use both for naval ships of the late 18th and early 19th centuries generally fully rigged on three masts and armed with guns on one or two decks and designed for various battle functions, and for a contemporary class of small, medium-speed warships designed primarily for escort duty and having antiair, antiship, and antisubmarine capabilities.

frontier settlements
Inhabited places established as an outpost or for another reason on the frontier of a nation, empire, or other ruling entity.

frontispieces (façade components)
Refers to the central portions or features of entrance facades, given emphasis by a more elaborate architectural treatment.

fulling mills
Refers to textile mills where newly prepared woolen yarn or cloth is processed for tailoring and use; the wool is laundered, teased, beaten, and/or pressed and thickened using a wooden frame.

funeral chapels
Rooms or separate structures devoted to funeral services in funeral homes. For chapels intended to permanently contain individual or family tombs, use "sepulchral chapels."

funeral homes
Buildings housing facilities for the preparation of human remains for burial or cremation and for formal viewing of and services for the deceased. Although meaning overlaps in common usage, they are often distinguished from "mortuaries," which do not typically have rooms or areas for formal viewings and services.

funerary art
Art produced for rituals commemorating the dead and for art produced as an individual expression of grief.

funerary buildings
Buildings associated with pre-burial ceremonies or buildings for the dead erected at burial sites.

furniture showrooms
Spaces in which furniture is arranged to be inspected and sold. These may be designed to resemble domestic or office environments in which the furniture would be used.

gabions
Baskets or cages filled with earth or rocks and used generally for support or abutment, especially for erosion protection; may also be used for military works, flood control, harbor works, dams, and foundations.

gable dormers
Dormers with a roof terminating in a gable. Dormers with a roof terminating in a gable.

gable-front houses
Houses in which the principle gable end faces the street or front of the lot and usually contains the front door.

gallerias (shopping centers)
Originally referred to a distinctive type of arcade of shops in Italian cities, descendents of the ancient stoas. Now refers to covered shopping malls that architecturally resemble or were inspired by Italian gallerias. The term is also used to describe areas of a department store that are designed so as to appear to contain a number of separate shops.

galleries (display spaces)
Spaces set aside, as in museums, for the display of objects in a collection.

galleries (upper level spaces)
Substantial interior spaces at the level of an upper story that overlook the level below and usually extend the full length or width of a room. For railed platforms projecting from the exterior walls of buildings or small, similar interior features, use "balconies." For floor levels in a church above the aisles and open to the nave, use "tribunes (stories)" or "triforiums."

galleries (upper level spaces)
Substantial interior spaces at the level of an upper story that overlook the level below and usually extend the full length or width of a room. For railed platforms projecting from the exterior walls of buildings or small, similar interior features, use "balconies." For floor levels in a church above the aisles and open to the nave, use "tribunes (stories)" or "triforiums."

gambling casinos
Recreation buildings equipped with gambling devices and often providing other forms of entertainment and restaurant facilities; for similar buildings but which lack gambling devices, use "casinos."

gambrel roofs
Curb roofs with only the two opposite sides sloping.

game rooms
Recreation rooms devoted entirely to table games.

gaming rooms
Rooms devoted to gambling.

gaps
Low places located in ridges, and not used for transportation.

garages
Buildings or parts of buildings where motor vehicles are parked or housed, usually temporarily; for buildings that sell gasoline, lubricating oils, and other merchandise for motor vehicles, use "service stations."

garden apartments
Ground-floor apartments with access to gardens, or the two- or three-story apartment buildings with communal gardens generally located in the suburbs.

garden cities
Cities or sections of cities newly planned to incorporate large tracts of green spaces, to control internal growth and development, and to separate industrial and nonindustrial activities. Distinguished from "garden suburbs" by their larger size and urban location.

garden clubs
Clubs which promote civic beautification, conservation, and historic preservation. Historically organized by women.

garden elevations
Particular arrangements of vertical elements of a building as seen by observers from the garden view.

garden houses
Ornamental, usually open, structures in gardens used for dining, viewing, or relaxing.

garden pavilions
Light, sometimes ornamental, structures in gardens, parks, or places of recreation that are used for entertainment or shelter.

garden structures
Structures usually associated with or located in gardens or similarly landscaped grounds.

garden suburbs
Suburbs designed to incorporate large tracts of green spaces and to control internal growth and development with an emphasis on residential communities. Distinguished from "garden cities" by their smaller size and location outside urban centers.

garden walks
Walkways through gardens, typically narrow.

gardens (open spaces)
Area of ground or open space where flowers, shrubs, trees, vegetables, or fruits are grown and cultivated.

gargoyles
Waterspouts carved into grotesque figures and projecting from the roof gutters of buildings.

garrison houses
Houses whose second story projects beyond the first story, usually on the facade.

gas wells
Wells tapping a supply of natural gas.

gas-turbine power plants
Power plants in which gas is burned, with compressed air or oil, to run steam-driven turbines that produce electrical energy.

gasholders
Use to describe large cylindrical or spherical tanks containing gas used for fuel.

gasworks
Plants where heating and illuminating gas are manufactured.

gate structures
General term used to group types of gates or gateways.

gated communities
Discrete housing complexes closed off to nonresidents by gates and fences or walls; may or may not also have guards or other surveillance and security installations.

gatehouses
Structures at, near, or over entrance gateways, usually containing a gatekeeper's dwelling. For subordinate buildings on the grounds of estates or parks used as the dwellings of employees, such as gatekeepers, but not located at entranceways, prefer "lodges (caretakers' houses)."

gates
Swinging or sliding barriers used to fill or close a gateway between two spaces or placed within a wall or fencing, often exterior and often made of a grating or open framework or forming a heavy or rough structure. For barriers of more solid and finished construction and usually leading to interior spaces, use "doors."

gateways
Passages through fences or walls separating two exterior spaces, or the structures or ornamental constructions enclosing such passages.

gazebos
Small structures, usually roofed and open-sided, located in gardens or parks from which one may gaze out over the surrounding grounds.

general hospitals
Hospitals that are not restricted to patients suffering from one particular class of disease or to those of a particular sex or age-group.

general stores
Retail stores, usually in small or rural communities, that sell a wide variety of merchandise, including food, but are not divided into departments.

genkan
Entrance halls or porches through which one enters a Japanese building and is greeted by the host, removes one's shoes, etc. Historically, this term referred only to alcoves found in Zen temple buildings, but now the term is used to refer to any entry alcove. These areas are often decorated with screen paintings.

geodesic domes
Structures consisting of numerous similar, light, straight-line elements (usually in tension) which form a grid in the shape of a dome.

geometric gardens
Formal gardens that employ a geometric design.

ghost towns
Designates once-flourishing settlements recently abandoned primarily due to dramatic economic decline or exhaustion of local natural resources; generally the buildings remain standing but in a state of deterioration.

girder bridges
Bridges whose superstructure consists primarily of girders.

glaciers (bodies of water)
Very large bodies of ice moving slowly down a slope or valley or spreading outward on a land surface.

glassmaking studios (organizations)
Studios in which one or more master glassmakers create works, supervise assistants, and instruct pupils.

glens
Small, narrow, and often secluded valleys usually with steep sides and flat bottoms; originally restricted to the mountainous areas of Scotland and Ireland.

gold mines
Mines from which gold is obtained.

golden section
Canon of proportion based on the ratio between two unequal parts of a whole when the proportion of the smaller to the larger is equal to that of the larger to the whole.

golf clubs (built complexes)
Recreation complexes where golf is played, comprising golf courses, clubhouses, and associated facilities and often restricting use to members.

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