SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here.

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geodesic domes
Structures consisting of numerous similar, light, straight-line elements (usually in tension) which form a grid in the shape of a dome.

geometric gardens
Formal gardens that employ a geometric design.

ghost towns
Designates once-flourishing settlements recently abandoned primarily due to dramatic economic decline or exhaustion of local natural resources; generally the buildings remain standing but in a state of deterioration.

girder bridges
Bridges whose superstructure consists primarily of girders.

glaciers (bodies of water)
Very large bodies of ice moving slowly down a slope or valley or spreading outward on a land surface.

glassmaking studios (organizations)
Studios in which one or more master glassmakers create works, supervise assistants, and instruct pupils.

glens
Small, narrow, and often secluded valleys usually with steep sides and flat bottoms; originally restricted to the mountainous areas of Scotland and Ireland.

gold mines
Mines from which gold is obtained.

golden section
Canon of proportion based on the ratio between two unequal parts of a whole when the proportion of the smaller to the larger is equal to that of the larger to the whole.

golf clubs (built complexes)
Recreation complexes where golf is played, comprising golf courses, clubhouses, and associated facilities and often restricting use to members.

golf course communities
Designates residential communities designed around golf courses.

golf courses
Outdoor area where the sport of golf is played, consisting of a teeing ground, fairway, rough, hazards, and a series of greens containing the 18 holes into which the ball is hit sequentially.

gondola cars
Open freight cars, commonly with low sides, for transporting bulk goods, as coal or steel, not requiring weather protection.

gorges (landforms)
Deep, rocky land depressions with steep sides, larger than ravines, with a river or stream at the bottom; distinct from "canyons," which tend to be larger and less rocky.

government office buildings
Designates buildings with office space for various departments or branches of government as well as space for public access to government officials.

grain elevators
Buildings comprising large, deep, and narrow storage bins and mechanical conveying systems for the receiving, weighing, storing, and discharging of large quantities of grain.

granaries
Storehouses or other repositories for grain, especially after it has been threshed or husked; sometimes also used to store corn.

grand hotels
Large, luxurious, and well-equipped hotels featuring distinguished architecture, which are designed to present travelers with an experience reminiscent of the ambiance of life in European palaces. Usage is generally restricted to buildings erected from the mid-19th to early 20th century.

grandstands
Structures, often with roofs and tiered platforms, for spectators to sit or stand on while viewing sporting events or other spectacles or performances.

granges (fraternal buildings)
Designates local meeting places for members of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, known as the Grange.

grasslands
Areas dominated by grasses rather than large shrubs or trees. One of the earth's six major biomes.

gravel pits
Excavations from which gravel or sand is or has been obtained, particularly excavations where the holes have been dug vertically into the surface.

graves
Excavations in the earth used for burial of a deceased human, sometimes of animals; for constructions raised over or around burial sites, use "tombs."

graveyards
Common grounds for the interment of bodies, particularly relatively small grounds belonging to a church or small community.

gravity dams
Dams that resist water pressure by their own weight.

Great Houses (Amerindian complexes)
Large, multistory, multiroom complex dwellings of the Ancestral Puebloan and Hohokam periods, mostly dating from 950 to 1150 CE; distinguished from "pueblos (housing complexes)" by their often D-shaped outline, cohesive planned design, and location in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and parts of Arizona.

greenbelts
Permanently reserved zones of land around and between cities.

greenhouses
Structures enclosed by glass and devoted to the cultivation and protection of plants out of season, usually free-standing but may be attached to another building. Greenhouses may be small or very large. For rooms attached to houses and used as sun lounges or for growing indoor plants, prefer "conservatories."

greens (open spaces)
Grassy, public open spaces near the center of a town and used for a variety of community functions, found especially in New England and Mid-Atlantic states.

greenswards
Landscaping section comprising turf on which grass is growing.

greenways
Ribbons of protected lands and waters, primarily within or near cities, established to provide the public with access to open spaces that mitigate the hard edges and overdeveloped landscapes of urban areas.

grocery stores
Stores that sell food and some nonedible household goods.

groins (erosion protection works)
Long, narrow, permeable or impermeable protective structures built out from a seashore to check or increase erosion. For similar structures located along a river or stream bank, use "wing dams"; when such structures are built to control shoaling, use "jetties (erosion protection works)."

grottoes
Refers to artificially constructed garden features, common since the 16th century in French and English landscapes. A grotto is characterized by being an excavation or structure made to imitate a rocky cave, often adorned with shell-work, colorful stones, etc., and serving as a place of recreation or a cool retreat. For natural features, use "caves" or "caverns."

grounds (open spaces)
Delimited portions of land, usually as lawn, plantings, or left natural surrounding and belonging to a house or other building. Grounds serve chiefly for ornament or recreation. Grounds may be enclosed; they may include gardens.

group dwellings
Relatively small dwellings containing two or more living units for people not of the same family or household, where each dwelling does not necessarily have a full range of residential facilities so that residents must share certain common areas, such as a kitchen, bathroom, and sitting room. Examples include dwellings used as temporary transitional residences. Distinguished from larger "multiple dwellings," which contain relatively complete residential units for multiple households within a single building or complex that has a smaller number of common areas, such as a laundry room.

groves (plant communities)
Groups of trees, often of a single species, smaller than forests in extent, growing naturally or planted in formation, and generally with little or no undergrowth.

guardhouses
Buildings for the shelter or accommodation of military guards, sometimes in which prisoners are temporarily detained under guard.

guardrooms
Rooms for the accommodation of guards while on duty.

guest rooms
Rooms in dwellings set aside or otherwise intended for temporary use by guests and usually not regularly used by household members.

guesthouses (dwellings)
Separate residences for guests, particularly when on a private estate or monastery and maintained specifically for receiving visitors.

guided missile bases
Military bases for the storage and deployment of guided missiles, which are self-propelled projectiles used as weapons, including but not limited to long-range ballistic missiles.

guideposts
Posts, usually mounted on the roadside or at intersections, bearing a sign or signs for the guidance of travelers.

guildhalls
Buildings belonging to and for the assembly of members of crafts, trades, or merchants' guilds.

gulfs (bodies of water)
Large inlets of the sea, usually more enclosed and more deeply indented than bays.

gullies
Small, commonly V-shaped channels carved in the land by fluvial action and through which water flows only occasionally or seasonally.

gymnasiums
Buildings designed and equipped for indoor, or, in antiquity, indoor and outdoor, sports, exercise, or physical education and training and usually including changing rooms and bath or shower facilites; in ancient Greece, often combined with educational facilities; generally larger than "palaestrae."

haciendas
Large Spanish landed estates common to 17th century Seville used as farms, or ranches. Also applies to Spanish-American estates and the main building of such a complex.

halfway houses
Temporary residences of former convicts, drug users, or mental patients that serve as a transition environment between confinement and a return to society; for long-term residential environments, which reproduce the circumstances of family life for persons requiring continuing supervision due to special needs, use "group homes."

hall churches
Churches with side aisles as high or nearly as high as the nave; popular in Germany.

hall houses
Houses containing a large central space as the principal ground floor or upper floor living area; normally restricted to Great Britain where in early examples the halls were usually open to the roof, and in later examples the halls, similar in position and function, had ceilings. For the main residential buildings of farms or large estates, prefer "farmhouses" or "manor houses" when emphasizing the buildings' function.

halls (interior spaces)
In general refers to rooms large in proportion to rooms for domestic functions, circulation, or storage; may be used specifically for the principal rooms of a Medieval house and for large central rooms from the 19th century onward in certain English and American houses.

halls of fame
Buildings set aside to honor outstanding individuals as in a profession, locality, or nation.

hamlets
Small rural centers which contain basic community, education, and religious facilities and which generally do not exceed 250 residents; may also refer to the smallest incorporated units of a municipal government.

handball courts
Courts marked for playing American handball and that include at least one smooth wall.

hangars
Structures for the shelter, service, and repair of aircraft.

harbors
Well-sheltered inlets of water affording protection from wind and sea and sufficient depth to allow anchorage for vessels.

hardware stores
Originally referred to ironmongery shops, where tools made of iron were sold and often also made. Today the term refers to shops or stores that sell tools and other items and products needed for home maintenance and repair, such as hammers, saws, nails, plumbing supplies, paint, insecticides, etc.

haunted houses
Refers generally to houses seeming to be inhabited by ghosts or other apparitions.

haylofts
Upper-story storage spaces for hay in stables or barns.

headhouses
Parts of railroad passenger terminals providing accommodations for persons waiting for trains.

headstones (tombstones)
Refers to the upright stones placed at the head of graves, that is, over the head of the interred body, generally the site of an inscription noting the name and life and death dates of the deceased.

healing gardens
Gardens designed to improve or maintain the physical and mental health of the ill or injured, including gardens serving as clinical tools in horticultural therapy. For gardens designed for use by the handicapped or the elderly, use "enabling gardens."

health clubs
Establishments offering facilities for exercise and active physical conditioning, whether or not on a membership basis.

health facilities
Buildings, other structures, and complexes of structures whose primary function is health care.

health resorts
Resorts specializing in maintaining or improving the health or rejuvination of its clients, often including dietary and exercise instruction, bathing in mineral waters, breathing of fresh air, and formerly, extended exposure to sunshine (which was formerly considered healthy). Resorts specializing in maintaining or improving the health or rejuvination of its clients, often including dietary and exercise instruction, bathing in mineral waters, breathing of fresh air, and formerly, extended exposure to sunshine (which was formerly considered healthy).

heating systems
Assemblies of interrelated equipment designed to provide heat to buildings and other structures.

hedges
Plantings of bushes or woody plants in a row as a formal element of a landscape or as a barrier.

heiaus
Sacred temples of worship of native Hawaiian people, typically rectangular in shape and situated on hill tops or mountain slopes. Heiaus have carved designs of deep symbolism. For similar structures from East Polynesia, use "maraes."

helipads
Designates helicopter takeoff and landing surfaces, usually without commercial facilities.

helm roofs
Roofs of four steeply pitched faces, forming a spire; the four ridges rise from the peaks of four gables, the roof faces being set diagonally in relation to the gable faces.

helms (built works)
Vernacular British structures of uncertain construction and purpose, possibly temporary and made of wood with an earthen floor and used for storage of produce, equipment, or animals, popular from the 16th to the 19th century.

hemicycles
Rooms or divisions of rooms that are semicircular in plan.

henges
Designates circular areas bounded by a ditch and an enclosing embankment, the whole usually surrounding a circle or circles of standing stones or wood posts. For prehistoric circular enclosures of well-spaced large upright stones only, lacking bordering features, use "cromlechs."

heritage trails
Organized and labeled trails laid out to follow points of interest concerning the local history of a region.

hermitages (religious communities)
Dwelling places of solitary hermits or of groups of religious in a relatively secluded setting.

high schools (buildings)
Buildings housing schools forming the third level of (usually compulsory) education for children, entered after elementary school and middle or junior high school; differing by school district in grades covered.

high schools (institutions)
Educational institutions for the third level of (usually compulsory) education for children, entered after elementary school and middle or junior high school. The grades or forms included in high schools vary by location, but often include grades 9 to 12. If the school district has no middle or junior high school, high school may include grades 7 to 12.

high-rise buildings
Buildings over nine or ten stories and served by elevators, especially when such buildings stand out in a skyline.

highways
Refers to major, high-speed, high-capacity roads between urban areas. The original meaning of "highways" referred to Roman roads that were raised above the ground level; for this meaning, use "elevated roads."

hill stations
Hill top resorts and places of refuge, especially in Asia, built by colonial administrators as an escape from the hot climates or politally unstable conditions.

hill towns
Settlements situated on a hill.

hillocks
Small hills, small elevations in the earth's surface, or small mounds or heaps of earth or stones.

hippodromes (Greek sports buildings)
Oblong enclosures curved at one end and built for horse and chariot racing, usage is typically restricted to such structures in Greek cities of the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine eras; meaning overlaps with similar structures in ancient Rome itself, "circuses (Roman arenas)." For sports structures used for horse racing in more modern contexts, use "horse racetracks."

historic buildings
Buildings that are significant in the history of architecture, that incorporate significant architectural features, or that played significant historic roles in local cultural or social development; may or may not be officially designated. For buildings that are abandoned but not considered necessarily historic, use "abandoned buildings."

historic display space
No description is available for this term.

historic districts
Former administrative or electoral districts that have been designated by a modern governing body as being culturally or historically significant, or embodying distinctive characteristics of a period, method of construction, or inhabitants. For historic areas of a city or town, use "historic quarters."

historic farms
Farms that are considered historical because they preserve methods of rural life and farming from past centuries, whether for tourists, historical preservation, or to produce crops or livestock. For former farms that have been abandoned, use "abandoned farms."

historic gardens
Gardens designed to reflect a period in history, either in form or through the use of heirloom plants.

historic house museums (buildings)
Houses with historical importance locally, regionally, or internationally that have been restored and opened to the public as museums.

historic house museums (institutions)
Museums in houses with historical importance locally, regionally, or internationally that have been restored and opened to the public.

historic houses
Houses with architectural, social, or cultural significance; may or may not be officially designated.

historic landscapes
Cultural landscapes that are significant in the history of landscape architecture or gardening or that were developed as a result of historic use of natural features; includes shaped areas of land and sometimes structures.

historic monuments
Refers to monuments with local, regional, or international political, cultural, or artistic significance.

historic sites
Parcels of land with historic significance due to historic events, architectural, engineering or archaeological activities, etc.

historic towns
Towns designated by a governing body as being culturally or historically significant, or embodying distinctive characteristics of a period, method of construction, or inhabitants.

historical parks
Areas containing properties and buildings of historical significance, and extending to include significant natural features as well.

historical societies
Groups formed to study and disseminate information about the history of a place, usually a town, city, county, or state; such groups often maintain a museum or research institute.

historical society museums (buildings)
Buildings housing museums administered by a historical society, which is a group formed to study and disseminate information about the history of a place, usually a town, city, county, or state.

history museums (buildings)
Buildings for any of a wide variety of museums where collections are amassed and typically presented to give a chronological perspective of the history of a city, town, region, group of people, etc.

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