SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here.

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dry docks
Enclosures or narrow, artificial basins that hold single ships, boats, or other watercraft, and from which the water may be pumped or let out to leave the vessel dry for the purpose of maintenance, repair, or shipbuilding. (Sometimes also used for building ships.). Dry docks are known in the historical record as early as the 10th century in China.

dry walls (masonry)
Masonry walls constructed without mortar.

dude ranches
Ranches that provide entertainment for paying guests and tourists who wish to learn to ride horses or bulls, herd cattle, or do other activities associated with ranching.

dumps (refuse areas)
Places where refuse, discarded excess materials, or temporarily useless products of human activities are deposited.

dunes
Hills or ridges of sand, typically in deserts, formed by shifting winds.

dungeons (jails)
Subterranean rooms or structures that comprise strongly fortified cells or other rooms of confinement; the term originally derived from such areas below the keep or donjon of a castle.

duplex apartments
Apartments with rooms on two levels.

duplex houses
Domestic structures with separate dwelling units for two individual families placed one above the other. When the units are placed side by side use "double houses."

dwellings
Accommodations designed or adapted for residential occupancy, usually but not always intended for human occupancy rather than for animals. For hotels or other buildings intended for use by transients see "public accommodations" and its narrower concepts. For the locale which constitutes the center of an individual's domestic life, personal relationships, and interests, together with the feeling of comfort and satisfaction that it conveys, use "home (concept)." For the collective concept referring to types of living arrangements of a particular group, use "housing."

earth dams
Dams using earth or rock as fill, utilizing natually available materials with minimum processing to construct embankments.

earth lodges
Designates certain Native North American dwellings framed by heavy timbers and covered with earth or sod and a dome-shaped arrangement of branches.

earth sheltered buildings
Structures that are surrounded by earth on all sides or on all sides except overhead, typically creating an almost invisible profile on the landscape and a green ideal in the savings of fuel and insulating materials. Structures that are surrounded by earth on all sides or on all sides except overhead, typically creating an almost invisible profile on the landscape and a green ideal in the savings of fuel and insulating materials.

earthen architecture
Buildings and other architectural structures constructed wholly or primarily of earth. For engineering works, such as trenches, created in the earth, use "earthworks (engineering works)." For structures built on a hillside rather than into it, use "hillside architecture." For structures built under the surface of the ground, but not made primarily of earth, use "underground structures."

earthworks (engineering works)
Formations made of earth, resulting from the grading, trenching, or embanking of earth for utilitarian or cermonial purposes. Examples include Medieval fortifications and ancient ceremonial sites in Britain and Europe. For earth constructions having more of an artistic, rather than functional, purpose, use "earthworks (sculpture)." For works considered architecture rather than engineering works, prefer "earthen architecture."

earthworks (sculpture)
Artist works that manipulate natural earth and stone, altering the terrain of the land itself for artistic purposes. For large-scale outdoor works that otherwise exploit or incorporate aspects of their sites, use the more general term "environmental art." For the results of grading, trenching, or embanking earth, for utilitarian purposes, use "earthworks (engineering works)."

eave components
Parts or components of eaves.

education
Discipline that concerns the entire process of imparting knowledge, attitudes, skills, or socially valued qualities of character or behavior. For the specific activities involved in deliberately conveying knowledge, skills, or social values to others, use "educating."

educational centers (buildings)
Buildings, part of a building, or complex in which training or education takes place. It is not necessarily a formal school.

educational complexes
Groupings of educational buildings and other facilities; if possible, use a more specific term.

Effigy Mound (regional style)
No description is available for this term.

effigy mounds (monuments)
Large earthworks formed in the likeness of birds and animals.

electric substations
Bulk delivery points for electrical power, from which it is distributed to consumers.

elementary schools (buildings)
Buildings that house schools providing the first stage of compulsory education, generally extending from grade 1 through grades 6 or 8 and teaching the rudiments of learning; may house a kindergarten.

elevated roads
Roadways raised about ground level by being supported on banks of earth, arches, pillars, or other structural elements.

elevators
Cars, cages, or platforms and associated machinery for the vertical conveying of goods or people to and from different levels.

ells (building divisions)
Extensions that are at right angles to the length of buildings.

embankments
Long ridges of earth, rocks, or gravel primarily constructed to carry a roadway; if built to retain water, use "levees" or "dikes."

embassies
Refers to the official headquarters of foreign ministers called ambassadors appointed to transact international business with a foreign government; when such headquarters are for ministers appointed primarily to oversee and protect the home country's economic interests in a host country, see "consulates." For the official residences of foreign ministers in general, see "legations."

emergency medical centers
Buildings, groups of buildings, or relatively large areas within a building specializing in the prompt treatment of acute illness, trauma, or other medical emergencies, often having treatments for a broad range of illnesses and injuries. The term is distinguished from "emergency rooms," which tend to be smaller facilities or rooms attached to a general hospital.

emergency rooms
Hospital areas equipped and staffed for the prompt treatment of acute illness, trauma, or other medical emergencies.

employees' buildings
Buildings or parts of buildings housing facilities for use by the employees for activities not strictly required for the job, such as a break room, meeting rooms, lockers, human resources offices, etc.

endangered places
Refers to open spaces, buildings, or other structures that are of historic or environmental significance and threatened with development or demolition.

energy efficient buildings
Buildings that employ methods and systems aimed at making optimal use of electricity and other resources, including using the largest possible proportion of regional resources and materials, in contrast to the conventional, inefficient practice of providing for only minimal efficiency in use of energy and drawing materials and energy from distant, centralized sources.

English barns
Rectangular, gable-roofed barns divided on the interior into three roughly equal bays arranged widthwise rather than lengthwise, the center bay comprising a passageway entered from the long sides.

English basements
Floor of a building that is partially both below and above ground level, and lacking an entrance at that level.

English hoods
Headdresses, usually of black fabric, characterized by a peak that projects above the forehead and is maintained by wires or a stiffened decorated framework; usually with embroidered strips that frame the face and either a fall of fabric that continues beyond the shoulders or two long pendant flaps that are sometimes pinned up at the sides; worn with an undercap by women from the late 15th to the mid-16th century.

entertainment buildings
Distinguished from "recreation buildings" by more narrowly designating buildings with devices or equipment for amusement or diversion and not active sports, nor for which membership is required.

entertainment centers (inhabited places)
Communities of any size that have entertainment as a major industry.

entrance halls
Passages or rooms just inside the entrance of a residence, but sometimes with a vestibule between it and the outdoors. Prefer "lobbies" for such spaces in larger public buildings.

entrances
Refers to points or places of entering.

environmental art
Contemporary works of art, usually outdoors and on a grand scale, that surround or involve the participation of the viewer and that especially exploit or incorporate aspects of their sites. For such works that specifically manipulate the land itself, use "earthworks (sculpture)." For indoor installations that create surroundings that can be entered by the viewer, use "environments (sculpture)." For sculpture that is designed to be placed outdoors but is not especially site-specific, use "outdoor sculpture." For art that utilizes natural physical forces, biological organisms and processes, and performance to illustrate, question, and explain ecological and environmental issues, use "ecological art."

environmental laboratories
Laboratories where issues regarding the natural environment are studied and tested, including issues surrounding effective resource use, resource conservation, and environmental protection.

environmentally sensitive areas
Areas having beneficial qualities to the surrounding environment or considered as natural assets to their region, typically including wetlands, flood plains, critical habitats of endangered species, and recharge zones of sole-source bodies of water.

equestrian centers
Facilities offering equestrian training, board, and care, typically comprising race tracks, barns, stables, and veterinary hospitals. For schools where equitation is taught, use "riding schools."

escarpments (landforms)
Steep slopes in front of fortifications. Also, long, steep cliffs or slopes resulting from erosion, and which separate two comparatively level surfaces.

estates (commercial agricultural holding)
Large, usually commercialized, agricultural landholdings with associated buildings and other facilities. The term is often used for former European colonial land holdings, similar to plantations. For landholdings that are intended primarily or in large part as the residence of the private owner, even if there are crops and tenant farmers, use "estates (residential complexes)." Meaning and usage of "estates" overlap with "plantations," although plantations are usually larger enterprises than agricultural estates.

estates (residential complexes)
Landed properties, usually of considerable extent, which typically have a grand house and outbuildings, and which may, but not necessarily must, have certain land on which a crop is cultivated; may have tenants who operate the agricultural lands. For commercial agricultural lands, particularly those similar to plantations and located in European colonial areas, use "estates (commercial agricultural holdings)."

estuaries
Category of marine body of water comprising areas where freshwater streams or rivers merge with the ocean. This mixing of waters with such different salt concentrations creates a very interesting and unique ecosystem. An estuary is usually a funnel-shaped stream mouth or embayment where fresh water mixes with sea water under tidal influences.

excavations (earthworks)
Cavities in the earth resulting from removal of soil and rock for purposes of building construction or archaeology.

excavations (sites)
Locations where there is digging or other uncovering of evidence of ancient life, including artifacts of human activity, fossils, frozen remains, or other preserved evidence.

exchanges (financial institutions)
In modern usage, buildings that house banks that specialize in the exchange of stocks and securities. The term historically refers to buildings in which the merchants of a town assemble for the transaction of business.

exhibition buildings
Buildings built or used exculsively or primarily for exhibitions, which are organized displays of works of art or other objects of human making. Exhibition buildings may be permanent facilities or temporary structures, as at a world's fair.

experiment stations
Buildings or outdoor facilities where research and experiments are carried out in a specific field, such as agriculture or mining, where practical applications are tested, and from where the results are disseminated. Distinct from "research stations" which are primarily for the observation of natural phenomena.

expressways
Divided multilane highways with a minimum of traffic signals where grades are separated at important intersections, although there may be some grade crossings; can be freeways or turnpikes.

eyebrow dormers
Low dormers in a roof over which the roof is carried in a continuous curve. Low dormers in a roof over which the roof is carried in a continuous curve.

factories (structures)
Refers to a building or group of buildings with the function of housing the action or process of making goods or producing anything, whether before or after the Industrial Revolution of the mid-19th century.

factory villages
Designates industrial settlements purposely built by factory owners to attract workers to isolated or otherwise undesirable locations with a minimum of services.

faculty clubs
Facilities for meetings, study, or recreation, reserved for the faculty of an educational institution.

faculty housing
Housing for staff, provided by an educational institution.

fair buildings
Temporary or permanant structures built or used for a fair.

fairgrounds
Spaces where fairs, horse races, and other events are held, typically set aside by a city, county, or state for an annual fair. Fairgrounds often include exhibition buildings.

family rooms
Informal living rooms, often adjacent to the kitchen, where a family may gather.

fanlights
Semicircular windows over doors or other openings with radiating bars giving the appearance of an open fan.

farmhouses
Chief dwellings attached to farms, particularly a dwelling for the family of a family-owned and -operated farm. Modern farmhouses characteristically comprise two stories with spacious, if modest, rooms and furnishings. Earlier farmhouses were characteristically one-story.

farmland
Land under cultivation or capable of being cultivated.

farms
Complexes where plants or animals are raised for livelihood or commerce.

farmyards
Yards or enclosures attached to a farmhouse or surrounded by farm buildings, used for airing livestock and other purposes. Yards or enclosures attached to a farmhouse or surrounded by farm buildings, used for airing livestock and other purposes.

fast food restaurants
Restaurants optimized for the fast filling of orders, typically focusing on take-away food and offering minimal or no table service. There is usually a limited menu; food is often cooked in bulk in advance and kept hot; and the restaurant usually belongs to a franchise operation that dictates both the menu and design of the restaurant.

federal prisons (buildings)
Buildings housing prisons administered by a federal government, in the U.S., those managed by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons.

Federal Reserve banks
Buildings that house banks that belong to the Federal Reserve System, which is the central banking system of the United States.

fences (site elements)
Roofless enclosures, barriers, defenses, or bulwarks, such as a railings, walls, hedges, or palisades constructed along the boundary of a field, park, yard, or another place for the purpose of defending from intruders, marking boudnaries, or keeping livestock or people within.

fencing (barriers)
Series of fences or other barriers, usually metal or wood and substantial in size.

fens
Designates waterlogged areas with pondweeds, reeds, and rushes and in which peat is accumulating but the water remains alkaline. Distinct from "bogs," in which the peat has reached a higher acidity.

Ferris wheels
Amusement devices consisting of a large power-driven wheel made in two parallel sections having seats suspended between them, the seats maintaining a horizontal position while the wheel rotates in a vertical plane. The first wheel was created by Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania bridge builder George W. Ferris for the 1893 Chicago World's Fair.

festival marketplaces
Complexes of shops, restaurants, kiosks, and pushcarts featuring music and other entertainment, generally built downtown to revitalize an urban center; coined in the 1970s.

field houses
Use both for buildings providing enclosed and unobstructed space adaptable for various physical education and recreation activities, such as track events and basketball, and for buildings housing equipment and dressing facilities for athletes; often located at or near athletic fields.

fields (land)
Open land as opposed to woodland or land occupied by buildings; for land appropriated for pasture or tillage, use "agricultural land."

filtration plants
Facilities that specialize in filtration of water, which is a method of purification that typically passes water through various filtering agents. Water filtration was developed for large scale implementation in 19th-century Germany. In slow-filtration methods, the water is allowed to pass through a deep layer of fine sand. In rapid-filtration plants, the water is treated with a coagulant, such as aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, or ferric sulfate, which flocculates particles; suspended matter to the bottom in sedimentation tanks and the water is passed at a relatively rapid rate through small beds of coarse sand. Heavily polluted waters may be chlorinated both before and after filtration. Aeration, involving the mixing of air with the water, is carried out if undesirable amounts of iron and manganese are present, since they are held in solution in water only in the absence of oxygen.

financial centers
Communities of any size that have finance as a major industry.

financial institutions (buildings)
Buildings that house institutions that provide financial services for clients or members, usually able to both accept deposits and make loans. Examples include banks, credit unions, savings associations, trust companies, and industrial loan and thrift companies. The interior space is typically optimized for a reception area and general office space, varying greatly depending upon the functions of the specific institution.

financial institutions (institutions)
Institutions that provide financial services for clients or members, usually able to both accept deposits and make loans. Examples include banks, credit unions, savings associations, trust companies, and industrial loan and thrift companies.

fire stations
Buildings housing firefighting apparatus and, usually, firefighters.

fire towers (watchtowers)
Towers, as on a mountain, from which a watch for fires is kept.

fish hatcheries
Facilities where fish eggs are hatched and the fry raised, especially to stock lakes, streams, and ponds. Facilities where fish eggs are hatched and the fry raised, especially to stock lakes, streams, and ponds.

fisheries
Facilities or location where the harvesting of fish, shellfish, and sea mammals is carried out as a commercial enterprise.

fishing areas (hydrographic features)
Hydrographic features, including grounds, banks, or other watery areas, where fishermen go to catch fish. For places on land where fishermen gather, use "fishing spots."

fishing lodges
Main buildings, typically located in a resort or park, and primarily serving tourists or sportsmen specializing in fishing.

fishing villages
Communities of relativelly small size that are located near a body of water and have economies centered on fishing.

fishponds
Ponds containing small fish, often ones in which edible fish are raised for commercial purposes, or for stocking lakes and streams.

fitness trails
Outdoor trails equipped with a series of stations where joggers or walkers stop and perform exercises on the apparatus provided.

fixed windows
Windows or portions of window units that are designed not to open.

flagpoles
No description is available for this term.

flats (apartments)
One-floor apartments, usually modest, each having an outside entrance; may also be used for buildings having a small number of such units and usually dating from the late 19th or early 20th century. Generally American usage.

flèches (spires)
Slender spires rising from the ridge of a roof, most commonly from the roof intersection over the crossing of a church; use "crossing towers" for more substantial structures such as a lantern between spire and roof.

floating buildings
Buildings designed with foundations floating in water or on platforms floating in water, rather than on foundations dug into the earth. Examples include houses with foundations on a river bottom constructed so that -- if the water level rises to flood stage -- the house and the foundation will float up with the water level; and various types of buildings constructed on floating platforms or islands in a body of water, such as a lake or sea. The term is also used in some disciplines to refer to very large ships containing the features and construction elements of a building.

flood dams
Dams constructed to store floodwaters temporarily or to supply a surge of water, as for clearing a channel of logs.

flood plains
Regions of land, usually bordering rivers, streams, or lakes, which are subject to excessive rainfall and short-term flooding of flat portions. Regions of land, usually bordering rivers, streams, or lakes, which are subject to excessive rainfall and short-term flooding of flat portions.

flood protection works
Dams, canals, and other structures designed to protect an area from flooding.

florist shops
Shops or stores where flowers and other plants are sold and arranged.

flour mills
Buildings equipped with machinery for grinding grain into flour.

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