SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here.

Click on the icon to view the definition of the selected term.

horse barns
Distinguished from "stables" by their barnlike appearance and their use as housing primarily for farm stock, feed, and associated maintenance equipment.

horse farms
Farms primarily engaged in the keeping, feeding, or breeding of horses for by-products, livestock increase, or investment.

horse racetracks
Racetracks designed or used for horse racing. For ancient Greek or Roman oblong structures designed for horse and chariot racing, use "hippodromes (Greek sports buildings)" or "circuses (Roman arenas)" respectively. Racetracks designed or used for horse racing. For ancient Greek or Roman oblong structures designed for horse and chariot racing, use "hippodromes (Greek sports buildings)" or "circuses (Roman arenas)" respectively.

horticultural buildings
Describes structures devoted to the cultivation of plants.

hospices (public accomodations)
Lodging places providing a variety of amenities for travelers and often maintained by a religious order.

hospital wards
Divisions, floors, or rooms of hospitals for a particular type or group of patients.

hospitals (buildings for health facility)
Buildings housing institutions that are built, staffed, and equipped for the diagnosis of disease, for medical and surgical treatment of the sick and the injured, and for their housing during this process. The modern hospital also often serves as a center for investigation and for teaching.

hospitals (buildings for pilgrims)
Buildings that house establishments, often charitable institutions, for the reception, housing, and care of pilgrims, travellers, or the needy. The term was originally reserved for the similar establishments of the Knights Hospitallers.

hospitals (institutions, health facility)
Institutions that are staffed and equipped for the diagnosis of disease, for medical and surgical treatment of the sick and the injured, and for their housing during this process. The modern hospital also often serves as a center for investigation and for teaching.

hostels
Public houses of lodging for strangers and travellers, typically distinguished from an inn or hotel by being inexpensive and providing communal accommodations, with several beds in a single room and shared bath facilities.

hot springs
A spring whose water is much warmer than the surrounding air because it has been heated by geothermal energy.

hot tubs
Large bath structures filled with hot aerated water, originally made of wood but more frequently constructed with plastic or fiberglass impregnated with resin. Typically used for recreation or physical therapy.

hotels (public accommodations)
Buildings where travellers or tourists are provided with overnight accommodation, meals, and other services; often distinguished from inns and other forms of temporary lodging for travellers by their larger size and range of facilities, in modern times often equipped with a restaurant, bar, conference rooms, and leisure facilities.

housebarns
Dwellings that house humans and livestock under a single roof. Housebarns include rectangular buildings sheltering animals and people at opposite ends, often with a common entry, and two-story buildings with people living on the top story and livestock below. Such houses have been used since the Neolithic period, especially in the colder climates of Europe and North America.

houses
Individual dwellings designed to be occupied by a single tenant or family. May also refer to a building for human occupation, for some purpose other than that of an ordinary dwelling; with this usage, "house" is generally prefaced (e.g., "cowhouse," "almshouse").

houses of correction (buildings)
Buildings that house institutions of confinement and correction, using hard labor and strict discipline with a view to reformation of the inmates; especially those dating to the 16th century and later in Europe and colonial America. For general reference to buildings housing any institution of correction, use "correctional institutions (buildings)."

housing (concept)
Collective concept referring to the types of living arrangements of a particular group. For the specific structures or groups of structures designed for these arrangements, use the descriptors collocated under "dwellings", <housing complexes>, or "settlements."

housing complexes
Buildings or complexes providing housing and related facilities.

housing developments
Commercially developed real estate tracts commonly consisting of one- to four-unit dwellings.

housing for the elderly
Housing designed or used primarily for people over 55 years old.

housing projects
Planned residential developments, generally publicly built and operated, intended for low- and moderate-income tenants.

Howe trusses
Planar trusses of various configurations in which the diagonal members are in compression and the vertical members are in tension; when the diagonals are in tension and the verticals are in compression, use "Pratt trusses."

hunting bases
Operational centers of any size used for activities surrounding hunting; may be contemporary or prehistoric.

hunting lodges
Temporary residences used during hunting trips.

huts (houses)
Simply constructed or small and humble dwellings, generally of natural materials.

hydroelectric dams
Dams built on rivers to harness the energy of waterpower to produce electricity.

hydroelectric power plants
Power plants in which electricity is produced using the energy of flowing water.

hyphens
Use to designate the elements connecting the central block with the outlying wings of a building of five-part Palladian form.

I-houses
Houses that are generally two-story, one-room deep, and which have a thin profile. Prominent in England, they became particularly popular in the American mid-Atlantic states from 1700-1915, and symbolized rural prosperity.

ice cream parlors
Establishments where ice cream and ice cream based drinks are sold, generally with a counter for seating. The first ice cream parlor opened in New York City in the late 18th century.

ice skating rinks
Bounded areas of ice suitable for skating, usually artificially frozen and enclosed.

icehouses
Specially insulated and ventilated agricultural buildings, increasingly popular after the mid-19th-century rise in dairy production, for the storing of ice blocks.

igloos
Eskimo houses usually made of sod, wood, or stone when permanent or of snow blocks in the shape of a dome when built for temporary purposes.

imperial palaces
Palaces housing an emperor, and often his family, members of the court, and servants.

inactive mines
Pits, tunnels, or open-air excavations originally made for underground extraction of metals, metallic ores, coal, or another substance, that are now not used or abandoned.

Indian reservations (Native American reservations)
Tracts of land set aside, usually by the United States government or a single US state's government, for the use of one or more native North American peoples.

indoor swimming pools
Swimming pools enclosed by a building or other structure and covered by a roof.

indoor tracks
Indoor spaces, usually oval in plan and having special floor surfacing, designed for running or jogging; for similar recreation spaces outdoors, use "running tracks."

industrial archaeology
Field of archaeology dealing with the sites, structures, and artifacts of the industries and processes of industrialization of former times.

industrial buildings
Refers to buildings or groups of buildings intended to house the machinery and activities associated with modern industry and machine manufacture that arose after the Industrial Revolution, beginning in the mid-19th century.

industrial complexes
Use generally for any grouping of diversified industrial buildings and related facilities.

industrial districts
Refers to areas set aside for or occupied primarily by buildings that house industrial activities.

industrial housing
Housing provided by an industry to its employees.

industrial landscapes
Landscapes significantly altered or modified by industry.

industrial museums (buildings)
Industrial buildings or complexes converted into museums or as part of museums.

industrial museums (institutions)
Museums located in industrial buildings or complexes that have been expressly converted into a museum.

industrial parks
Refers to areas zoned and planned for so-called clean industries, developed and managed as a unit, where plots are offered fully equipped with transport and installation facilities, often already including a number of multi-use buildings.

industrial plants (structures)
Refers to the land, buildings, machinery, apparatus, and fixtures used to carry on a trade or an industrial business, which can include a factory or workshop for the manufacture of a particular product or the total facilities available for production or service. There is some overlap in usage of this term with "industrial buildings," "industrial complexes," and "factories (structures)."

industrial sites
Building sites upon which one or more industries are planned or located. For a grouping of industrial buildings, use "industrial complexes" or "industrial parks."

industrial structures
General term that groups all structures built for the purpose of industry. For buildings or groups of buildings intended to house the machinery and activities associated with modern industry and machine manufacture that arose after the Industrial Revolution, beginning in the mid-19th century, use "industrial buildings."

industrial towns
Communities of modest size, built mostly since the Industrial Revolution, in which the primary employment is in factories. When the primary employment is in factories for the manufacture of paper, steel, or textiles, use "mill towns." When settlements are purposely built by factory owners to attract workers to isolated locations, use "factory villages."

infirmaries
Health care facilities providing uncomplicated medical and nursing care for residents or members of an institution or other facility.

information centers (facilities)
Buildings or other structures erected for the dissemination to the public of such items as tourist brochures, shopping guides, travel maps, or other documents, or for structures on which such information is publicly displayed.

information signs
Use to distinguish those signs that convey general information from those that are "direction signs," "identification signs," or "regulatory signs."

infrastructure
Refers to the underlying foundation or basic framework of a system or organization, especially the services and facilities which are an integral part of the life in an urban community.

inglenooks
Recessed seating areas by a fire or hearth.

inlets
Generally used for narrow openings of rivers into riverbanks or lakes and seas into shores.

inner cities
Refers to the usually older and more densely populated central sections of cities.

inns
Relatively small public buildings that offer for a fee rooms for sleeping and a tavern for food and beverages.

installations (visual works)
Works dating from the 1960s or later that use their exhibition space as part of their design. Demanding a viewer's active engagement, installations are often created by artists in direct opposition to the notion of permanent artwork, or art as a commodity.

institutes (buildings)
Buildings housing organizations, societies, or regular meetings for the promotion of a particular literary, scientific, artistic, professional, or educational endeavor that is labeled an "institute."

institutional buildings
Built works used by, or in support of, institutions.

institutions (buildings)
The buildings used by an institution, which is a formally structured organization, establishment, or association created for the promotion of a specific benevolent objective.

intaglio (sculpture technique)
Technique of creating a design that is sunken into the surface, by carving or incising.

intensive care units
Areas in hospitals for critically ill patients requiring especially close surveillance and special life-support equipment.

interchanges
Road junctions that permit vehicles to pass from one road to another by a system of separate levels.

Ionic order
Refers to the architectural order characterized by capitals with volutes, richly carved moldings, and columns with bases.

iron mines
Mines from which the primary extraction is iron, which is an element and lustrous, silvery, soft metal.

ironworks (factories)
Mills or other buildings where iron or steel is smelted or otherwise processed.

irrigation systems
Artificial systems that water land to supply moisture for plant growth.

islands (landforms)
Landforms smaller than a continent, completely surrounded by water at high water. Islands appear in oceans, seas, lakes, or rivers.

jails (buildings)
Buildings that house places of confinement operated by a local government both for temporary detention of sentenced and unsentenced individuals and for persons serving sentences of less than one year; for longer periods of confinement and more secure than lockups, but less confining and for shorter confinements than prisons.

jails (institutions)
Institutions of a local government having facilities for both temporary detention of sentenced and unsentenced individuals and for persons serving sentences of less than one year; for longer periods of confinement and more secure than lockups, but less confining and for shorter confinements than prisons.

Japanese gardens
Gardens created following the Shinto, Buddhist, or Zen philosophy of the relationship between nature and people and generally characterized by simple asymmetrical designs, dominated by clipped evergreens, often incorporating bridges, rocks, stepping stones, raked gravel, and stone lanterns to create an environment for contemplation and meditation.

judicial buildings
Public buildings used for judicial function.

judicial centers
Communities of any size that are the location for the administration of justice.

junior colleges (buildings)
Buildings that house post-high school institutions which offer a two-year program of study of a terminal nature or in preparation for continued college studies.

junior high schools (buildings)
Buildings that house schools intermediate between elementary school and high school, differing by school district in grades included.

junkyards
Places that collect, store, and often resell junk.

justice centers
Complexes typically comprising a jail, police station, and courthouse, which provide services such as educational classes and treatment programs as means of reform.

juvenile justice centers
Buildings that house justice centers used for the custody and treatment of juvenile offenders.

karst areas
Distinctive landscapes, usually located on soluble rock such as irregular limestone, and characterized by caverns, sinkholes, fissures, ridges, and underground drainage. The term is derived from the Karst region of Slovenia.

keeping rooms
Rooms (often rectangular) at the back of colonial houses in the United States, especially in the Northeast, which served as a combination kitchen, living room, and workroom.

kennels (animal housing)
Establishments where dogs or cats are bred, raised, trained, or boarded.

key pattern
Frets consisting of a relatively continuous series of rectilinear hook shapes, sometimes crossing each other.

keystones
Central wedge-shaped voussoirs in arches or vaults; also, similar elements used as ornaments on the heads of doors or windows.

kilns
Furnaces, ovens, or heated enclosures for drying, charring, hardening, baking, or burning various materials.

kindergartens (buildings)
Buildings that house schools serving pupils in the year prior to their entering the first grade, typically at age five.

king-post trusses
Triangular frames with a vertical central strut (the king post) extending from apex to tie beam.

kiosks
Small, freestanding structures either open or partially enclosed, where merchandise is displayed, advertised, or sold.

kitchen gardens
Private gardens established primarily for growing vegetables and herbs for domestic consumption.

kitchenettes
Small rooms or alcoves fitted with the essential conveniences of a kitchen.

kitchens
Rooms intended for the preparation and cooking of food.

kivas
Pueblo Indian buildings used as men's clubhouses and for ceremonial and social activities.

knot gardens
Intricately designed gardens in which ground cover, low shrubs, or colored earths are arranged in interlacing patterns resembling knots.

labor camps
Refers to penal colonies where the prisoners are obliged to undertake heavy labor. Refers also to residential camps for migratory workers.

laboratories
Rooms, buildings, or groups of buildings equipped with apparatus for scientific experiments or other research, testing, and investigations.

labyrinths (built works)
Structures of any material having a plan consisting of a number of intercommunicating passages arranged in bewildering complexity, through which it is difficult or impossible to find one's way without guidance. The term was derived from structures so-named in classical Antiquity, perhaps derived from "labrys" (Greek for "double axe" or "place of the double axes"), because the structures were labeled with the sign of a double-axe. The earliest use of the term is usually associated with the mythical labyrinth at Knossos, Crete, in which Theseus killed the Minotaur.

lady chapels
Major chapels dedicated to the Virgin Mary, usually located in the axis of a church at its east end.

lagoons (bodies of water)
Bodies of shallow water separated from the sea by a barrier, such as a sandbar or coral reef.

, ,