SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here

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Abstract Expressionist
Refers to the movement in American painting, centered mainly in New York, that flourished in the 1940s and 1950s. Incorporating theories of Surrealism, Synthetic Cubism, and Neo-Plasticism, styles ranged from spontaneous, gestural compositions that paid attention to the qualities of the painting materials and stood as records of the painting process, to contemplative, near monochromatic works featuring large areas of color.

Acoma
Refers to the culture and style of the Acoma, a Native American people living in western New Mexico.

Adam Style
Refers to the style identified with Scottish-born architect Robert Adam (1728-1792), prevalent in Great Britain from 1760-1790. Inspired by archaeological discoveries in Herculaneum and Pompeii, the Adam style is characterized by austere but refined Classical forms, symmetry, detail, and geometric precision.

adaptive reuse
The conversion of outmoded or unused structures, such as buildings of historic value, and objects, such as software, to new uses or application in new contexts.

Adena
No description available for this term.

Aesthetic Movement
Refers to a British and American movement influencing fine and decorative art and architecture in the 1870s and 1880s. Following the philosophy of "art for art's sake", the Aesthetic Movement stressed beauty and the autonomous value of art over didactic purpose, narrative content, or significant subject matter.

African American
Designates the styles, culture, and heritage of Americans of African descent in North America. The styles capture the essence of the African American experience and how personal and political rebellion and triumphs over prejudice and social adversity have enriched and contributed to the music, art, and literature of American culture as a whole.

Alaska
No description available for this term.

Alaska Native
No description available for this term.

Aleut (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

American (North American)
Refers to the context of or associated specifically with the modern political entity of the United States of America.

Ancestral Puebloan
Refers to the style and culture of a North American civilization that existed in the "Four Corners" area, where the boundaries of the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah intersect. The culture flourished from the first century CE to around 1300 CE, and descendants of this cultural group probably include the modern Pueblo Indians now living in New Mexico and Arizona. The style is noted for fine baskets, pottery, cloth, ornaments, tools, and great architectural achievements, including cliff dwellings and apartment-house-like villages, or pueblos. In some classification schemes, the modern Pueblo cultures are considered later phases of this people, though most schemes end this culture with the abandonment of the cliff dwellings around 1300 CE.

antebellum
Generally, a period before a war. Specifically refers to a period or activity before the American Civil War (1861-1865).

Apache (culture or style)
Style and culture of the descendents of the Athabascan family who migrated to the Southwest in the 10th century. Over time, many bands of Apache were relocated to reservations from their traditional homelands, which once extended through Arizona and New Mexico.

Arapaho (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

Arbutus menziesii (species)
Species of Arbutus found on the west coast of North America, from British Columbia, chiefly Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands, to California. It is a broadleaf evergreen tree with rich orange-red bark that peels away on the mature wood, leaving a greenish, silvery, smooth appearance.

Archaic (North American)
Culture in North America from around 8000 BCE to 2000 BCE, ending with the adoption of sedentary farming, which varies from place to place in the Americas.

Arikara (culture or style)
Refers to the culture of the Arikara, an American Plains Indian people who lived along the Missouri River between the Cheyenne River in South Dakota and Fort Berthold in North Dakota. The Arikara, a Caddoan-speaking people, were culturally related to the Pawnee, from whom they broke away and moved gradually northward, becoming the northernmost Caddoan tribe. Wars and smallpox epidemics severely reduced their numbers by the 19th century.

Art Deco
Refers to the style predominently of architecture and the decorative arts, widely disseminated in Europe and the United States in the 1920s and 1930s, which became popular after the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Modernes in Paris in 1925. The style is characterized by a synthesis of industrial and fine arts materials used to create a wide variety of both man-made and mass-produced objects, often with an emphasis on rectilinear motifs, vibrant colors, and elegant, abstracted, simplified forms.

Art Nouveau
Refers generally to the style of painting, architecture, decorative arts, and applied arts that flourished in Europe and the United States from about 1890 to 1910. The style is characterized by an emphasis on fluid, undulating, or serpentine lines or contours based on organic forms and the use of modern materials such as iron and glass. The style developed as regional variations under various names.

Artisan Mannerist
Refers to the English architectural and decorative style in the mid-17th century. Developed by artisans through the use of pattern books, it is characterized by a rough Classicism that reflects regional differences and the work of individual workshops. Architectural elements include hipped roofs, broken pediments, and lugged architraves.

Arts and Crafts (movement)
An aesthetic and social movement of the late 19th century that originated in England and spread to the United States, Germany, and Northen Europe. A reaction against industrialization and the quality of manufactured goods, the movement is marked by a desire to revive the craftsmanship associated with traditional arts, a form follows function philiosphy, and an idealized view of the medieval craft guilds.

Assiniboin
No description available for this term.

Athapaskan (culture or style)
Refers to a language group of North American Indians that encompasses many linguistic sub-groups and cultural groups. It is an arbitrary term derived from Lake Athabaska by Albert Gallatin in 1836 to refer to a culture that he believed were centered around this area. People belonging to the Athapaskan language group occupy vast areas of the subarctic region as well as areas in New Mexico and Arizona. Spelling of the term varies widely, and often appears in multiple forms in a single source. 'Athapaskan' has been in general use since 1930. 'Dene' or 'Na-Dené' is the self-determined descriptive term used by this group, and is sometimes used synonymously with Athapaska, though is also used to describe a larger category that includes Tlingit and Haida language groups.

Aztec (culture or style)
The style and culture of the Nahuatl-speaking peoples of the Aztec Empire or Triple Alliance, of late Pre-Columbian central Mexico; flourished ca.1400-1520 CE.

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