SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here

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Salado (culture or style)
Prehistoric culture of the American Southwest, which flourished from the mid-thirteenth through sixteenth centuries, and was centered in the Tonto Basin of southeastern Arizona. A farming and trading people, the Salado lived in walled adobe compounds, practiced burial (rather than cremation) of their dead, and created distinctive polychrome ceramics.

San Ildefonso
No description available for this term.

Sans Arc
Style and culture of a subdivision of the Lakota people who currently live primarily in the Cheyenne River Reservation.

Santa Fe Style
Style characterized by horizontally-oriented low buildings of one or two stories, flat roofs with little or no overhang, broad blank surfaces, few openings, components divided by small modules, materials of plaster, wood, brick, and tile, and colors in the ranges of reddish brown to cream. The style developed in Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States, as a statutory unified building style that incorporated synthesized elements of Pueblo Revival, Territorial, Native American, and American western styles, based on the Santa Fe Governor's Palace, Native American pueblos, and Spanish villages of the upper Rio Grande valley.

Santa Maria (pottery style)
No description available for this term.

Scandinavian Medieval styles
Styles belonging to Scandinavian Medieval cultures.

Scandinavian modern
Mid-20th century style of industrial and furniture design characterized by organic shapes, a lack of applied ornament, and extensive use of wood: often teak. Furniture in this style generally conforms to standards of construction, materials and proportion of traditional forms, though streamlined. The term is most often applied to furniture and industrial design such as tableware rather than to architecture, though it is also found in extended use.

Scottish Baronial
Refers to a Scottish architectural style in the mid-nineteenth century that revived forms associated with the traditional Scottish tower house such as machicolations, conical roofs, turrets, bartisans, and battlements.

Secession Movement
Describes the works of the groups of German and Austrian artists who rebeled against the Salon system and exhibited independently at the end of the 19th century. The exhibition of art and concerns about the art market formed the basis of the movement. The artists involved were not commited to a particular style but works tend to be lyrical, focus on nature, and avoid modern themes.

Second Empire
Refers to the architectural and decorative arts style in France between 1852 and 1870 during first the presidency and later the Empire of Napoleon III, but also affecting Europe and the United States. Noted for its eclecticism, opulence, and ostentation, the period reflects the revival of several historical styles including the Louis XVI, Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque styles. In architecture, the style is identified more specifically with public and domestic buildings with mansard roofs, heraldic motifs, pedimented dormers, and French Renaissance detailing.

Shaker (Christian sect)
Refers to a Christian millenarian sect that arose in 1747 in England out of a group of radical Quakers that had adopted the French Camisards' ritual practices of shaking, shouting, dancing, whirling, and singing in tongues; the sect was later spread to the United States by Ann Lee and her disciples. The sect advocates communal living, productive labor, and celibacy. Shaker communities in the United States flourished economically and created a distinctive and influential style of architecture, furniture, and handicraft before the sect declined in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Shaker dances and songs are also admired as folk art and the Shakers are responsible for numerous important inventions.

Shawnee (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

Shingle Style
Refers to the movement in America between 1879 and 1890 headed by John C. Stevens (1855-1940), characterized by the use of wood shingles to cover entire buildings and a predilection for functionalism rather than for historical, learned styles. This movement, which grew out of the Stick and Queen Anne movements, prevailed more among private homes and hotels rather than among industrial or commercial sites and featured free-flowing, open plans with interlocking interior and exterior spaces, irregular elevation, open porches, and irregular roof lines that contributed to an overall pastoral effect.

Shoshone
No description available for this term.

Sienese
Nationality, style, and culture of Siena, Tuscany, Italy.

Sinagua
No description available for this term.

Sioux
Refers to the culture of the Sioux, a North American Plains Indian people, or confederation of peoples, of Siouan linguistic stock. Sioux is an abbreviation of Nadouessioux, a name originally used to refer to them by the Ojibwa; the word Dakota means "allies." There were three main divisions of the Sioux: Santee, Yankton, and Teton, calling themselves, respectively, Dakota, Nakota, and Lakota.

Sitka (Native American style)
No description available for this term.

South American
Refers to the cultures of the continent of South America, which is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Central America, and the Antarctic region.

South Asian
No description available for this term.

Southern Paiute
Style and culture of a North American Indian group who speak Ute, and who at one time occupied what are now southern Utah, northwestern Arizona, southern Nevada, and southeastern California, the latter group being known as the Chemehuevi. Although encroached upon and directed into reservations by the U.S. government in the 19th century, the Southern Paiute had comparatively little friction with settlers and the U.S. military; many found ways to stay on their traditional lands, usually by working on ranches or living on the fringes of the new towns.

southwest (style)
A generic style, particulary in the context of decorative arts and interior design, characterized by motifs and elements originating in New Mexico, Arizona, and nearby areas, including influences of Native American and Spanish design.

Southwestern Native American
Styles and cultures Southwestern Native America.

space age
Refers to the period from the mid-1950s through the early 1970s when rocketry was first used to launch satellites and manned missions to extraterrestrial space. Generally applied to works that were inspired by new techniques, materials, and designs developed for space flight; or the images, experiences, or psychological states recorded by astronauts during space missions. The term has been applied to works of art, design, music, and architecture characteristic of this period.

Spanish Colonial
Refers to the style and period dating from the early 16th century through the early 19th century, in areas colonized by Spain, particularly the Americas. The style is mainly seen in paintings, sculpture, and in ecclesiastical and military architecture. The style reflects the tastes of aristocratic landholders and the church, and generally imitates styles current in Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, and France, with some limited influence from native traditions of design and representation.

Spanish Colonial Revival
Refers to the movement in Colonial Revival architecture during the 1920s evident in the building programs of the American West and Southwest and generally features Spanish-style balconies, verandas and arcades, towers, pan-tiled roofs, and plazas and courtyards. Most notably, the style features a lack of architectural moldings and the heavy use of carved or cast ornament, classically-derived columns, window grilles, and wrought iron or turned spindles reminiscent of Spanish colonial architecture in Mexico.

Spanish Renaissance-Baroque styles
Styles belonging to Spanish Renaissance-Baroque cultures.

spoke dogs
Sticks used by wheelwrights to force the outer ends of spokes into the rim.

steel (alloy)
Any of various hard, strong, durable, malleable alloys of iron and carbon, often with other elements such as manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, tungsten, cobalt, or silicon; widely used as a structural material.

Stick Style
Refers to the theory coined by Vincent J. Scully in 1949 to address the style of mid-19th century American timber-framed domestic architecture and to correlate the desire to express structure with an externally conspicuous and organic wooden frame. The style reflects European traditions based on half-timbered Late Gothic domestic architecture of England, France, and Germany, on Swiss chalet styles, and on Scandinavian and Slavic vernacular building designs.

Streamlined Moderne
Style of architecture and design reaching its height in the late 1930s in the United States. In architecture, it is characterized by the use of horizontal lines, round corners, and sometimes nautical elements, such as railings and porthole windows. In design, these elements were expressed in a variety of new materials, such as Bakelite (TM) and chrome.

Stuart
Period, culture, and British style under the Stuarts, a Scottish and English dynasty of rulers, patrons, and collectors. It particularly refers to the elegant court styles created in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Susquehanna
No description available for this term.

sustainable architecture
Structure design that is specifically environmentally conscious, taking into account construction methods and materials that are locally available as well as the building's efficient use of resources, including systems of heating, cooling, power, water, and waste. Provides affordable, adequate shelter with minimal negative effect on the local and global environment; may be replicated and locally maintained.

sustainable development
Development designed to ensure that the utilization of resources and the environment today does not damage prospects for their use by future generations.

Swedish (culture or style)
Refers to the culture of the modern nation of Sweden, or in general to cultures that have occupied the area of the eastern section of the Scandinavian peninsula in northwestern Europe.

symbolism (artistic concept)
Method of representing things by symbols, or of giving a symbolic character to objects or acts.

Symbolist
Refers to the international intellectual movement that was first applied to literature in the late 19th century, spreading to painting and theater, and influencing European and American literature from the 20th century to the present. Affecting later movements such as Surrealism, it is characterized by a complex synthesis of psychology, mystical and occult practices, and linguistics used to challenge traditional relationships between representation and meaning.

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