SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here

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Early Christian
The culture, styles, and period of the first centuries of Christianity, by some reckonings through the 9th century. In art, it generally refers to art of Italy and the western Mediterranean from the third to the mid-9th century CE. It is characterized by an adaptation of the artistic language and symbolism of classical antiquity, but generally sacrifices classical ideals of physical beauty and technical perfection to emphasize spirituality and the immaterial world. For the culture, style, and period of eastern Mediterranean Christian from the 4th to the mid-15th century CE, use "Byzantine."

Early English
Refers to the beginnings of Gothic architectural style in England, as coined by English architect and antiquarian, Thomas Rickman, in the early 19th century. It originally referred primarily to window tracery, but now is applied more generally to the broader style. The style is evident in the late 12th century, and is characterized by the use of the pointed arch, long narrow windows without mullions, a rectangular plan, and a long, low silhouette broken only by numerous gables.

Early Renaissance
Refers to the early period of the Renaissance, when the style developed in Central Italy in the mid- to late fourteenth century and spread throughout the peninsula and to northern Europe in the early to mid-15th century. The style moved away from the fantastic, decorative styles of the Medieval period to place new emphasis on the idealized naturalistic world portrayed in the art, architecture, and literature of Classical Greece and Rome.

Early Victorian
Refers to the Victorian style between 1837 and about 1850. It is characterized by a progression from earlier Regency forms to revival styles, particularly the Gothic Revival, and a growing interest in ornamentation and heavy forms.

earthworks (sculpture)
Artist works that manipulate natural earth and stone, altering the terrain of the land itself for artistic purposes. For large-scale outdoor works that otherwise exploit or incorporate aspects of their sites, use the more general term "environmental art." For the results of grading, trenching, or embanking earth, for utilitarian purposes, use "earthworks (engineering works)."

Eastlake
Refers to the decorative and architectural style in 19th century America associated with the furniture designs of Charles Locke Eastlake. In architecture, the style derives forms from furniture design featuring columns resembling table legs, curved brackets, spindles, and knobs of various shapes consisting of circular perforations.

eclecticism
Approach or practice of selecting the best elements from different doctrines, methods, or styles to apply them in a new creation. In the specific context of art or architectural criticism, use to mean borrowing from a variety of visual sources in the creation of a work.

Edwardian
Refers mainly to the style of architecture produced during the reign of Edward VII (1901-1910) though some authors date it from 1890, when the Gothic became less predominant and architectural style became more eclectic, to 1914 when building halted because of World War I. Often noted for its ebullience or opulent and monumental qualities, Edwardian architecture actually reflects the development of several architectural movements, namely the Baroque and Neoclassical Revivals, the Beaux-Arts Style, and the Arts and Crafts Movement.

Effigy Mound (regional style)
No description available for this term.

Egyptian Islamic
The Islamic culture and styles that developed in Egypt.

Egyptian Revival
Refers to the style in American and European architecture and decorative arts dating between the late 18th and early 19th centuries and influenced by publications about Egypt and Napoleon's military campaigns. It is characterized by the use of Egyptian forms and motifs including obelisks, pyramids, hieroglyphs, winged solar discs, sphinxes, papyrus, and lotus buds.

Elizabethan
Period, culture, and English style of architecture and decorative arts produced during the reign of Elizabeth I between 1551 and 1603. A combination of Gothic, Italian Renaissance, Flemish and French Mannerist, and vernacular styles, it is characterized by elaborate architectural silhouettes, elements suchs as finials, pendants, and strapwork and in decorative arts, rich surface ornamentation.

Elizabethan Revival
Refers to the English style of architecture, interior design, and decorative arts from the 1830s to the 1860s, drawn from the Elizabethan period of the sixteenth century. Architects adopted a range of Elizabethan architectural forms including gables, octogonal turrets and lead-paned windows, while designers applied cinquefoils, strapwork, and coats of arms to furniture, silver, and ceramics.

environmental art
Contemporary works of art, usually outdoors and on a grand scale, that surround or involve the participation of the viewer and that especially exploit or incorporate aspects of their sites. For such works that specifically manipulate the land itself, use "earthworks (sculpture)." For indoor installations that create surroundings that can be entered by the viewer, use "environments (sculpture)." For sculpture that is designed to be placed outdoors but is not especially site-specific, use "outdoor sculpture." For art that utilizes natural physical forces, biological organisms and processes, and performance to illustrate, question, and explain ecological and environmental issues, use "ecological art."

Eskimo (culture or style)
Refers to artwork produced by native Arctic culture, prior to European contact. For names of specific native peoples of the present, use descriptors such as "Chugach," "Inuit," or "Katladlit."

Expressionist (style)
Refers to an international style of art, literature, music, dance, and theater that flourished between 1905 and 1920, especially in Germany. The style is characterized by the abandonment of traditional standards of realism and proportion in favor of expressing the artist's emotions, resulting in distortions of line, color, and form.

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