SAH Archipedia uses terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) to categorize and classify metadata for the entries in the database. For more information on the Getty AAT, click here

Click on the icon to view the definition of the selected term.


Makah (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

Mandan (culture or style)
No description available for this term.

Mannerist (Renaissance-Baroque style)
Refers to a style and a period in evidence approximately from the 1520s to 1590, developing chiefly in Rome and spreading elsewhere in Europe. The style is characterized by a distancing from the Classical ideal of the Renaissance to create a sense of fantasy, experimentation with color and materials, and a new human form of elongated, pallid, exaggerated elegance.

marble (rock)
A metamorphic, hard, dense, crystalline stone primarily composed of calcium carbonate; it is limestone or dolomite that has been metamorphosed with heat and pressure. Pure calcite marble is white, but impurities produce a wide variety of coloring and patterns. It is finely grained and polishes to a smooth, high gloss. It is used primarily for statuary and buildings. Marble has been quarried from sites around the world since at least the 7th century BCE. The term can also refer more broadly to any crystallized carbonate rock, including true marble and certain types of limestone, that will take a polish and can be used for architectural and ornamental purposes.

mausoleums
Edifices erected as commemorative burial places, often but not exclusively limited to large, stately, or imposing edifices for or by a person of distinction. The word is derived from the burial place of Mausolus, ruler of Caria, in whose memory his widow Artemisia raised a splendid tomb at Halicarnassus (ca. 350 BCE).

Mayan Revival
Style and movement inspired by the architecture and iconography of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures. Most works date to the 1920s and 1930s; examples include architecture, mosaics, and other works.

Medieval (European)
Refers to the period beginning in the Christianized Roman Empire in the fifth century and lasting until the Renaissance, which began in the 13th to the 15th century CE, depending upon which country is being discussed. The variety of styles that developed during the Medieval period are generally characterized by an evolution of the Greco-Roman tradition to incorporate Christian themes, the energetic spirit of the Celtic and Germanic peoples, and the thriving new towns populated by free men.

Mediterranean (Early Western World)
Refers to the cultures of the areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, which is bordered by Europe, Asia, and Africa. It particularly refers to the island cultures and those on the mainland of Europe and Asia Minor that border the Mediterranean Sea. It includes cultures that developed in and around the Tyrrhenian, Ionian, Ligurian, Adriatic, and Aegean seas.

Mesoamerican
Designates the styles of the Pre-Columbian region comprising present-day central and central-southern Mexico, the Yucatán Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador, and parts of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Culturally, it refers to a set of technological, social, economic, religious and political traits shared by several different cultures, including the Aztec, Huastec, Maya, Mixtec, Olmec, Tarascan, Teotihuacßsn, Toltec, Totonac, West Mexican and Zapotec.

Mexican
Culture and nationality of the nation of Mexico or its people.

Mexican Muralist (movement)
Refers to the movement in Mexico, spearheaded by artists Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siquieros, which sought to elevate and legitimize mural works as a recognized Mexican art form. The Mexican Muralist School, which included Rufino Tamayo, Juan Soriano, and José Clemente Orozco, politicized the movement, often depicting scenes from the Mexican Revolution, aspects of the nation's modernization, the relentless social upheavals with class struggles in satirical and life-like styles.

Mid-Century Modernist
Refers to the architectural, interior and product design style that generally describes mid-20th century trends from ca. 1933 to 1965. The term was first used in the book "Mid-Century Modern: Furniture of the 1950s" (1983) by Cara Greenberg. In architecture, the style is characterized by the International Style and Bauhaus movements, the work of Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe. In design, sleek Scandinavian style furniture and objects were influential.

Middle Eastern
Styles and cultures existing in the extensive area that includes the nations of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa. The term was formerly used to also include Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Burma.

military engineering
Art and practice of designing and building military fortifications and other installations, and building and maintaining lines of military communication and transportation. It includes providing utilities such as water and power to combat armies, design and construction of facilities to transport armies and weapons, particularly heavy artillery, the use or neutralization of conventional explosives, development of topographical maps and engineering intelligence, and the development of equipment necessary to carry out these operations.

mimetic buildings
Buildings that physically illustrate their name or function in their plan or elevation, for example a dairy stand shaped like a milk bottle.

Minimal
A style developed in the mid 20th century, characterized by simplicity and lack of decoration to the point of starkness. The movement advocated reducing art to the state of non-art by removing nature and culture, resulting in artwork in pure, simple forms and objects placed randomly. The term can be extended to all art, including literature, design, music, visual art, and performance. With specific reference to the visual arts, the term is used to describe an abstract art movement and style, predominantly of sculpture, that flourished in the mid- and late 1960s. With specific reference to music, it refers to a style that emerged in the United States in the 1960s featuring prolonged repetition of short passages and unvarying harmonies.

Minton (ceramics style)
Refers to the various styles of English porcelain and earthenware produced by Thomas Minton in Staffordshire beginning in 1793: majolica, Parian ware, Palissy ware, and blue printed earthenware.

Mission (modern North American style)
Late 19th-century and early 20th-century American decorative arts style, principally with reference to furniture. Use "Mission Style" for a subtype of the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture style.

Mission Style (Spanish Colonial Revival style)
A subtype of the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture style, characterized by simplicity of form and ornamentation. Use "Mission" for the late 19th-century, early 20th-century American decorative arts style, applied principally to furniture.

Mississippian
Refers to a Native American culture and style evident in North America from around 800 CE to the mid-18th century, when its last representatives, the Natchez, declined and were dispersed. It was prevalent in the southeast and mid-continent in the river valleys of what are now the states of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota and the Great Plains. The culture was based on agricultural development of the bottomlands and government by theocratic village-states. Village architecture is characterized by dwellings arranged around oval or pyramidal earth mounds and a central ceremonial plaza. The style of decorated utilitarian and ceremonial objects is characterized by work in copper, shell, stone, clay, and feathers, often with elaborate designs including human figures, animal motifs, and geometric shapes.

Missouri
No description available for this term.

modern (generic time frame)
Being in existence at this time; although the time frame varies depending upon context, the term generally refers to a person, place, thing, or event dating no earlier than 75 years from the present time.

Modern (style or period)
Period and styles of painting, sculpture, graphic arts, and architecture dating from the late 19th century to the present date and characterized by a rejection of traditional artistic forms and conventions. It typically reflects changing social, economic, and intellectual conditions. Modern art includes numerous movements and theories. It differs from contemporary art, which does not carry the implication of a non-traditional style, but instead refers only to the time period in which the work was created. 'Modern' and 'contemporary' are inherently fluid terms. The term 'modern' sometimes more narrowly refers to art up until the 1960s or 1970s.

modern American
Styles, periods, cultures, and movements of America in modern times.

modern Chinese styles and periods
No description available for this term.

modern European revival styles
Modern revival styles belonging to European cultures.

Modern Movement
Use with reference to the collective actions and objectives of Modernist architecture, especially, but not exclusively, of the International Style. For art, architecture, or design more generally, use "Modernist."

modern North American
Styles, periods, cultures, and movements of North America in modern times.

modern Slovenian styles and movements
No description available for this term.

Modern Style (Art Nouveau )
A variation of Art Nouveau based on French works and influenced by works of Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris; the term is particularly applied to architecture and furniture design.

Modernisme (Art Nouveau )
The variation of the Art Nouveau movement in Spain. From the 1890s to the early 1900s, the style appeared in the visual and decorative arts, and prominently in the architecture, with special relevance of Antoni Gaudí. Although as a cultural trend it appeared in the whole of Spain, as far as the arts are concerned, it was particularly widespread in Catalonia, and from there the style and the influences extended to other Spanish cities.

Modernist
Refers to the succession of 20th-century avant-garde art and architectural movements formed in a reaction to social modernity. Modernism was eclipsed by the Post-Modernism movement, which began in the 1970s.

Monacan
Style and culture of the Native American people who inhabited the upper James River valley of Virginia, or the present-day group in Amherst County, Virginia, claiming descent from these people. Distinct from the "Algonkin" who share the same original Algonquian language heritage, but inhabit Northern Ontario and Quebec along the Ottawa River in Canada.

Monterey Style
Nineteenth-century architectural style developed in Monterey, California, as a blend between local adobe structures and Yankee woodwork.

Moorish Revival
Refers to the style in 19th-century European architecture and decorative arts characterized by Hispano-Moresque forms and motifs such as honey comb vaulting, arabesques, and horseshoe arches.

Mound Builder
Formerly used to refer to prehistoric North American people who inhabited the Ohio and Mississippi valleys and other areas, characterized by the erection of mounds. It is now understood that this was not an identifiable culture, but that the mounds were instead constructed by a variety of peoples for various purposes.

mounds
Piles of earth heaped up for landmarks, monuments, or as bases for other structures; for piles of earth and other debris resulting from successive superimposed occupation sites, use "tells." For piles of earth built over grave sites, use "burial mounds." Use "cairns" for purposely erected piles of stones.

, ,